بررسی کاربرد بیوچار و سطوح مختلف آبیاری بر ویژگی‌های فیزیکوشیمیایی و تنفس میکروبی خاک آلوده به کادمیوم در کشت گوجه فرنگی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای فیزیک و حفاظت خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

2 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه مهندسی کشاورزی علوم آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

5 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران

10.22059/ijswr.2022.340509.669232

چکیده

آلودگی خاک به فلزات سنگین و تنش رطوبتی از عوامل اصلی تهدید­کننده امنیت غذایی در جهان هستند. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی تأثیر بیوچار بر ویژگی­های فیزیکی-شیمیایی و تنفس میکروبی خاک در کاهش تنش کادمیوم در گیاه گوجه فرنگی و تعیین سطح آبیاری بهینه رشد گیاه بود. آزمایش بر اساس آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با کاربرد سه سطح بیوچار سبوس برنج (صفر (B0)، 3 (B3) و 6 (B6) تن در هکتار) و هفت سطح آبیاری (50 (L50)، 60 (L60)،70 (L70)، 80 (L80)، 90 (L90)، 100 (L100) و 110 (L110) درصد آبیاری کامل (L100) بر اساس تخلیه رطوبتی خاک) در کشت گیاه گوجه فرنگی در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان در سال 1398 اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد که بهترین تیمارها در بهبود ویژگی‌های فیزیکی خاک (جرم مخصوص ظاهری، تخلخل خاک، پایداری خاکدانه‌ها، درصد خاکدانه‌های پایدار و شاخص پایداری خاکدانه‌ها)، عناصر غذایی خاک (نیتروژن، فسفر، پتاسیم، آهن، منگنز، روی و مس) و افزایش تنفس میکروبی خاک، تیمارهای L90B6، L100B6 و  L110B6بودند. بهترین عملکرد میوه گوجه فرنگی با 00/1459، 70/1588 و 30/1610 گرم در بوته، به ترتیب در تیمارهای L90B6، L100B6 و L110B6 مشاهده گردید که با یکدیگر اختلاف معنی­داری نداشتند. بعلاوه، غلظت کادمیوم در میوه گوجه فرنگی در این تیمارها 02/0 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم بود که کمتر از میانگین استاندارد جهانی (FAO/WHO) است. در حالی که در تیمارهای B0 و B3، سمیت شدید میوه گوجه فرنگی و کاهش عملکرد دیده شد. بنابراین در سطح آبیاری 90 درصد تخلیه رطوبتی خاک با کاربرد 6 تن در هکتار از بیوچار سبوس برنج، حداقل تنش کادمیوم و حداکثر عملکرد گیاه مشاهده گردید و از مصرف آب بیشتر جلوگیری به عمل آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Biochar Application and Different Levels of Irrigation on Physico-chemical Properties and Microbial Respiration of Cadmium Contaminated Soil in Tomato Cultivation

نویسندگان [English]

  • tara jamili 1
  • Afsaneh Alinejadian Bidabadi 2
  • Abbas Maleki 3
  • Mohmmad Feizian 4
  • Omid Ali Akbarpour 5
1 Faculty of Agriculture, Soil Science Department,, Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture Lorestan University, Khoramabad, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Agronomy and Plant Breeding Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil pollution with heavy metals and moisture stress are the main threats to food security in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of biochar on physico-chemical properties and soil microbial respiration in reducing cadmium (Cd) stress in tomatoes, and to determine the optimal irrigation level for plant growth. A factorial-based experiment in a randomized complete block design using three levels of rice bran (0 (B0), 3 (B3), and 6 (B6) ton/ha) and seven irrigation levels (50 (L50), 60 (L60), 70 (L70), 80 (L80), 90 (L90), 100 (L100), and 110 (L110) percent of full irrigation (L100) based on soil moisture depletion, respectively  were performed on tomato cultivation in the research greenhouse, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, in 2019. The results showed that the best treatments in improving soil physical properties (bulk density, total porosity, mean weight diameter, water-stable aggregates, and stability index), soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, manganese, zinc, and copper), and increasing soil microbial respiration, were L90B6, L100B6, and L110B6 treatments. The best tomato fruit yield with 1459.00, 1588.70, and 1610.30 g plant-1 was observed in L90B6, L100B6, and L110B6 treatments, respectively, which have not significantly different. In addition, Cd concentration in tomato fruit in these treatments was 0.02 mg/kg, which is lower than that of the global average (FAO/WHO), while in treatments B0 and B3, severe toxicity of tomato fruit and reduced yield were observed. Therefore, in the irrigation level of %90 percent of soil moisture depletion (L100) with the application of 6 ton/ha rice husk biochar (B6), minimum Cd stress and maximum yield for the plant were observed, and more water consumption was prevented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carbon sequestration
  • Heavy metals
  • Soil quality
  • Rice bran
  • Soil moisture depletion
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