هیومیفیکاسیون لیگنایت در فاز جامد جهت فعال‌سازی ترکیبات نیترو-هیومیکی از طریق اکسیداسیون ازن: ارزیابی عملکرد هیومیفیکاسیون و تبدیل نیتروژن در فرآیند

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی مکانیک بیوسیستم، گروه مهندسی فنی کشاورزی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 گروه مهندسی بیوسیستم. پردیس ابوریحان . دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار، گروه فنی کشاورزی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

10.22059/ijswr.2022.340128.669223

چکیده

این پژوهش اولین تلاش در هیومیفیکاسیون فاز جامد لیگنایت جهت فعال‌سازی ترکیبات نیترو-هیومیکی (NHSs) در راستای بهبود کاربرد لیگنایت‌ها در کشاورزی و محیط زیست است. از اکسیداسیون ازن، افزودنی‌های اوره و KOH به‌ترتیب برای تسریع فرآیند هیومیفیکاسیون، غنی‌سازی نیتروژن و عامل فعال‌سازی هیومیک اسیدها استفاده شد. به‌منظور بررسی عملکرد هیومیفیکاسیون فاز جامد لیگنایت، شاخص‌هایی از قبیل محتوای هیومیک اسید کل (THA)، هیومیک اسید محلول در آب (WHA)، محتوای نیتروژن و اکسیژن، نسبت C/N، درجه اکسیداسیون (O/C) حاصل از آنالیز عناصر اصلی CHNOS و محتوای گروه‌های عاملی کربوکسیلی و فنولی هیدروکسیل ارزیابی شدند. جهت تأیید تغییرات گروه‌های عاملی حاوی نیتروژن و اکسیژن و همچنین تبدیل مؤثر نیتروژن در فرآیند هیومیفیکاسیون از طیف‌سنجی‌ FT-IR و آنالیز درصد توزیع انواع نیتروژن‌های تثبیت‌شده استفاده شد. آزمایش‌ها و جمع‌آوری داده‌های این پژوهش در سال 1400 در دانشکدگان ابوریحان-دانشگاه تهران و در آزمایشگاه‌های گروه مهندسی بیوسیستم انجام شده است. در ادامه، روش سطح پاسخ مبتنی بر طرح مرکب مرکزی (CCD-RSM) برای تعیین شرایط بهینه استفاده و مدل‌های ریاضی برای پیش‌بینی دقیق تغییرات دو پاسخ THA و WHA توسعه داده شد. تحت شرایط بهینه 8 گرم بر ساعت نرخ ازن‌دهی، 15 دقیقه زمان اکسیداسیون، 85/14 درصد وزنی KOH و 30 درصد وزنی اوره، مقدار THA و WHA به‌ترتیب 02/69 و 32/53 درصد حاصل شد که به‌طور قابل توجهی بیشتر از نمونه کنترل (بدون از‌ن‌دهی و اوره) به‌ترتیب 30 و 7 درصد بود. توزیع یکنواخت فرم‌های تثبیت‌شده نیتروژن در ترکیبات NHSs نشان داد که 47 درصد از مقدار نیتروژن کل به فرم نیتروژن آمونیومی، 16 درصد به فرم نیتروژن آمید و 37 درصد به فرم نیتروژن آلی پیوندی با اتصالات بسیار قوی است. مقدار گروه‌های فنولی 71/85 درصد و مقدار گروه‌های کربوکسیلی 87/215 درصد در اثر هیومیفیکاسیون ازن‌ افزایش نشان دادند. فرآیند بهینه‌سازی شده منجر به بهبود شاخص‌های کیفی از جمله کربن کمتر، نیتروژن بیشتر و در نتیجه نسبت C/N کمتر، نسبت O/C بیشتر، کربن آروماتیک کمتر، کربن آلیفاتیک و کربوکسیلی بیشتر برای ترکیبات NHSs شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Solid-phase humification of Lignite for activation of nitro-humified substances via ozone oxidation: humification efficiency and nitrogen transformation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ehsan Sarlaki 1
  • mohammad hossein kianmehr 2
  • Ali Mashaallah Kermani 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agrotechnology, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Full Professor,, Department of Biosystems Engineering, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor , Department of Agrotechnology, College of Abouraihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

This study is the first attempt to solid-phase humification of Lignite for activation of nitro-humified substances (NHSs) towards improve the cleaner application of lignites in agriculture and the environment. Ozone oxidation and additives of urea and KOH were used as accelerator of humification process, nitrogen enrichment and humic acid activating agent, respectively. In order to elucidate the solid-phase humification performance of lignite, indicators such as total humic acids (THA) and the water-soluble humic acids (WHA), nitrogen/oxygen content, C/N ratio, degree of oxidation (O/C) obtained from CHNOS elemental analysis, and carboxylic and phenolic functional groups content were evaluated. Toward the confirmation of changes of the oxygen-nitrogen containing functional groups as well as effective nitrogen transformation in the humification process, FT-IR spectroscopy and analysis of distribution percentage of incorporated bonded nitrogen forms were studied. Experiments and data collection of this research were completely conducted in 2021-year in the college of Abouraihan-University of Tehran and in the laboratories located in department of biosystems engineering. In continuation, response surface methodology based on the central composite design (CCD-RSM) was used to determine the optimal conditions, and mathematical models were developed to accurately predict the changes of THAs and the WHAs. Under the optimal conditions of 8 g/h of ozonation rate, 15 min of oxidation time, 14.85 %wt. of KOH and 30 %wt. of urea, the yield of THA and WHA were 69.02% and 53.32%, respectively which were significantly higher than the control samples (30% and 7%, respectively). The uniform distribution of binded nitrogen forms in the NHSs showed that 47% of the total nitrogen content in the NHSs was in the form of ammonium nitrogen, 16% in the form of amide nitrogen and 37% in the form of highly bonded organic nitrogen with very strong bonds. By assist of ozone humification, the content of phenolic and carboxylic acid groups increased by 85.71% and 215.87%, respectively. The optimized process resulted in superior quality indicators, including less carbon, more nitrogen and consequently lower C/N ratio, higher O/C ratio, lower aromatic carbon, and more aliphatic and carboxylic carbon for developed NHSs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Activated Lignite
  • humic acid
  • ozone oxidation
  • accelerated humification
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