برآورد نیاز آبی، ضریب گیاهی و بهره‌وری آب انگور در دو سیستم کشت داربستی و خزنده در منطقه ملکان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی و مدیریت آب، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 گروه مهندسی و مدیریت آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار پژوهش،مؤسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی ، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، البرز، ایران

چکیده

اعمال مدیریت آبیاری باغ‌های انگور بر اساس نیاز آبی گیاه در نواحی خشک و نیمه‌خشک به‌منظور بهبود تولید پایدار و بهره‌وری آب از اهمیت بسیاری برخوردار است. به‌منظور برآورد نیاز آبی، ضرایب گیاهی و بهره‌وری آب انگور رقم سلطانی در منطقه ملکان در استان آذربایجان شرقی دو پژوهش مزرعه‌ای در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو سیستم کشت داربستی و خزنده، تحت سیستم آبیاری قطره‌ای زیر سطحی در سال 1399 انجام شد. با استفاده از داده های حاصل از اندازه‌گیری‌های دوره‌ای اجزای بیلان آب در مزرعه، نیاز آبی ( محاسبه گردید. کلیه عملیات داشت به‌صورت بهینه انجام و در طول آزمایش سعی شد باتوجه‌به نتایج اندازه‌گیری رطوبت خاک، با انجام آبیاری به موقع، رطوبت خاک از حد رطوبت سهل الوصول کمتر نگردد تا گیاه دچار تنش رطوبتی نشود. میانگین  انگور در طول دوره رشد در کشت داربستی 451 میلی‌متر و در کشت خزنده 394 میلی‌متر بود. بهره‌وری آب به ازای هر متر مکعب تبخیر-تعرق و آب آبیاری به ترتیب در کشت داربستی 83/5 و... کیلوگرم و در کشت خزنده به ترتیب 83/5 و 1/6 کیلوگرم بود. حداکثر ضریب گیاهی () انگور در کشت داربستی 9/0 و در کشت خزنده 82/0 بود که نشان داد میزان تبخیر-تعرق واقعی انگور در طول فصل رشد همواره کمتر از تبخیر-تعرق مرجع بوده‌است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of Water Requirement, Crop Coefficient and Water Productivity of Grapevines Trained in Two Trellises and Creeping Systems in Malekn Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • omid oroujian mashhadi 1
  • Seyed Majid Mirlatifi 2
  • Hossein Dehghanisanij 3
1 Water Engineering and Management Department, School of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Water Management and Engineering Department, School of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Researcher, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Karaj, Alborz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Vineyard irrigation scheduling according to actual crop water requirements in the arid and semiarid regions is crucial to improve water productivity and maintain sustainable production. This experiment was carried out to evaluate water consumption (), crop coefficient () and water productivity of grapevine in the Malekan region located in the eastern Azerbaijan province. Two different field experiments in the form of complete randomized design with three replications were carried out during the 2020 growing season in two vineyards with trellis and creeping trained systems under subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). The grape's  was determined by measuring the components of the water balance equation including variations of soil moisture at different levels of the root zone. In order to prevent water stress, the soil moisture content was kept to the range of the readily available water during the whole growing period. The grape's  was 451, 394 mm, respectively, in the trellis and creeping system. Accordingly, water productivity was 5.83 and 6.1 kg per cubic meter of . Maximal daily  was 0.8–0.9, respectively, in the trellis and creeping system, implying that the maximum daily actual water consumption was lower than the calculated corresponding reference evapotranspiration.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Evapotranspiration
  • Micro-irrigation
  • Sultana cultivar
  • Water consumption
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