تأثیر تراکم بوته و قارچ مایکوریزا بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد دانه و درصد پروتئین نخود تحت شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت واصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد نراق، نراق، ایران

2 گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

3 موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

4 گروه زراعت واصلاح نباتات، واحد نراق, دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، نراق، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر تراکم بوته و قارچ مایکوریزا بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد دانه و درصد پروتئین نخود تحت شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت­های دو بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 1390-1391 در مزرعه­ای در روستای قالهر شهرستان دلیجان انجام گردید. تیمار­های آزمایش شامل آبیاری در چهار سطح دیم کامل، یک مرحله آبیاری در مرحله شروع گلدهی، یک مرحله آبیاری در مرحله پرشدن دانه و آبیاری کامل به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و قارچ مایکوریزا در دو سطح تلقیح و عدم تلقیح عامل فرعی و تراکم بوته در سه سطح 20، 30 و 60 بوته در مترمربع به‌عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تیمار آبیاری بر تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد گره در ریشه، درصد پروتئین دانه و عملکرد دانه تأثیر معنی­داری داشت و بالاترین عملکرد دانه در آبیاری کامل و به میزان 97/3135 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد. تلقیح با قارچ مایکوریزا باعث افزایش تعداد گره در ریشه و عملکرد دانه به ترتیب به میزان 50 و 7/10 درصد گردید. تلقیح با قارچ و در شرایط دیم منجر به بالاترین تعداد گره در ریشه شد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در تراکم 60 بوته در به میزان مترمربع 76/3691 کیلوگرم در هکتار به دست آمد. همچنین یک مرحله آبیاری در مرحله گلدهی و پرشدن دانه به ترتیب منجر به افزایش عملکرد دانه به میزان 5/31 و 7/26 درصد نسبت به دیم گردید؛ بنابراین می‌توان با تلقیح با مایکوریزا، تراکم 60 بوته در مترمربع و یک مرحله آبیاری تکمیلی افزایش عملکرد دانه­ای نسبت به شرایط دیم در شرایط مشابه با مطالعه حاضر به دست آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Plant Density and Mycorhizal Fungi on Yield, Yield Components and Grain Protein Percentage of Chickpea under Supplementary Irrigation Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • salman maghamimehr 1
  • Hamid Dehghanzadeh 2
  • Alireza Fallah Nosratabad 3
  • karim Nozad namini 4
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Islamic Azad University of Nargagh Branch, Naragh, Iran
2 Department of Agricultural Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
3 Soil and Water Research Institute, The Agricultural Research,Education and Extention Organization(AREEO), Karaj, Iran
4 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Naragh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Naragh, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of supplemental irrigation, application of mycorrhizal fungi and plant density on yield and yield components and grain protein percentage of chickpea under rainfed conditions in the Qalhar village of Delijan region, Iran during 2012, as a split- split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four levels of irrigation management (as main plots) were rainfed without irrigation, irrigation at flowering stage, irrigation at seed filling stage and complete irrigation. two levels of inoculation (as sub plots) were inoculation with Glomus ineraradice and non-inoculation. Three plant densities (as  a sub-sub plots) were 20, 30 and 60 plant.m-2. Irrigation treatments had a significant effect on the number of pods per plant, the number of nodes per plant, grain yield and grain protein percentage and the highest grain yield was obtained at full irrigation. Inoculation with mycorrhiza fungus increased the number of nodes in the root and grain yield by 50% and 10.7%, respectively. Mycorrhiza inoculation in rainfed conditions resulted in the highest number of nodes in the root. The highest grain yield was obtained at a density of 60 plants.m-2. One stage of irrigation at the flowering stage and grain filling led to an increase in grain yield to 31.5% and 26.7% compared to rainfed, respectively. Therefore, according to the results of this study, by inoculation with mycorrhiza, the density of 60 plants.m-2 and a supplementary irrigation stage, a significant increase in grain yield compared to rainfed conditions at similar conditions to the present study can be achieved.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chickpea
  • Fungal inoculation
  • Number of nodes in the root
  • Number of pods per plant
  • rainfed
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