تحلیل حساسیت تبخیر-تعرق مرجع به پارامترهای هواشناسی (مطالعه موردی: ایستگاه‌های سینوپتیک استان یزد)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان یزد، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، یزد، ایران.

2 دانشیار، بخش آبیاری و فیزیک خاک، موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

3 استادیار، بخش آبیاری و فیزیک خاک، موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

4 محقق، بخش آبیاری و فیزیک خاک، موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

به دلیل بحران کمی و کیفی آب در استان یزد و لزوم تخمین دقیق نیاز آبی گیاهان، تحلیل حساسیت تبخیر-تعرق مرجع به پارامترهای هواشناسی امری ضروری است. به این منظور در این مطالعه تأثیر تغییرات پارامترهای هواشناسی بر تغییرات تبخیر-تعرق مرجع (تخمینی با استفاده از معادله فائو پنمن مانتیث) در ایستگاه­های هواشناسی متفاوت استان یزد مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. داده­های هواشناسی بین سال­های 1380 تا 1399، شامل دما، رطوبت، سرعت باد و مجموع ساعات آفتابی در محدوده 20± درصد تغییر داده شدند. بر اساس نتایج این مطالعه در هر سه مقیاس سالانه، فصلی و ماهانه پارامترهای سرعت باد، دمای بیشینه و ساعات آفتابی به‌عنوان مهم­ترین پارامترهای مؤثر بر تبخیر-تعرق مرجع هستند. ضریب حساسیت تبخیر-تعرق مرجع سالانه نسبت به تغییر 20 درصدی هر یک از پارامترهای سرعت باد، بیشینه دما و ساعات آفتابی به ترتیب در محدوده (32/0-46/0)، (27/0-34/0)و (12/0-2/0) به دست آمد. به‌طورکلی در مقیاس فصلی بیشترین تأثیرگذاری پارامتر سرعت باد بر تبخیر-تعرق مرجع در فصل تابستان و بیشترین تأثیرگذاری پارامتر بیشینه دما بر تبخیر-تعرق مرجع در فصل بهار و پاییز بود. در ماه­های آبان تا فروردین بیشترین حساسیت تبخیر-تعرق مرجع به ترتیب به پارامترهای بیشینه دما، سرعت باد و ساعات آفتابی و در ماه­های اردیبهشت تا مهر به ترتیب به پارامترهای سرعت باد، بیشینه دما و ساعات آفتابی بود. بر اساس نتایج این مطالعه در مقیاس ماهانه ضریب حساسیت تبخیر-تعرق مرجع به پارامتر سرعت باد در ایستگاه­های با ارتفاع کمتر، بیشتر است. همچنین تغییر ارتفاع ایستگاه­های هواشناسی مورد بررسی در حساسیت تبخیر-تعرق مرجع به سرعت باد در مقیاس سالانه و فصلی مؤثر بوده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Sensitivity Analysis of Reference Evapotranspiration to Meteorological Parameters (Case Study: Synoptic Stations of Yazd Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • bita moravejalahkami 1
  • Niazali Ebrahimipak 2
  • Arash Tafteh 3
  • Seyed Narges Hosseini 4
1 Assistant Professor, Soil and Water Research Department, Yazd Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Yazd, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Irrigation and Soil Physic, Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
3 Assistant professor, Department of irrigation and soil physics, Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
4 Researcher, Department of Irrigation and Soil Physics, Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Due to quantity and quality water crises in Yazd province and the necessity of precise determination of crop water need, sensitivity analysis of reference evapotranspiration to meteorological parameters is essential. For this purpose in this study, the effects of variations of each meteorological parameter on reference evapotranspiration (estimated by FAO Penman-Mantith 56) were analyzed in different weather stations of Yazd province. Meteorological parameters during 2001 to 2020 including temperature, humidity, wind speed, and sunshine hours were changed in the range of ±20%. Based on the results of this study wind speed, maximum temperature and sunshine hours were the most important parameters that affect reference evapotranspiration in three yearly, seasonal, and monthly scales. 20 percent changing of each parameter including wind speed, maximum temperature, and sunshine hours caused sensitivity coefficients of yearly evapotranspiration to be (0.32-0.46), (0.27-0.34), and (0.12-0.2) respectively. In general, on a seasonal scale, the most impact of wind speed parameter on reference evapotranspiration was in summer and the most important impact of maximum temperature parameter on reference evapotranspiration was in spring and autumn. From November until April the most sensitivity of reference evapotranspiration was observed for maximum temperature, wind speed, and sunshine hours. From April until October the most sensitivity of reference evapotranspiration was observed for wind speed, maximum temperature, and sunshine hours. According to the results of this study, for monthly scale the sensitivity of reference evapotranspiration to the wind speed is higher for the station with lower altitude. Also, the altitude variation of meteorological stations has been effective in the sensitivity of reference evapotranspiration to the wind speed for annual and seasonal scales.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Water requirement
  • climate change
  • Evapotranspiration
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