اثر آبیاری با آب‌شور بر روی عملکرد عدس، در مقایسه با شرایط غیر شور کشت دیم (در قزوین)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی(ره)، قزوین، ایران.

چکیده

در سال زراعی 1400-1399، پژوهشی بر روی گیاه عدس در دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی(ره) انجام شد. تیمارها شامل یک تیمار کشت دیم (D) و پنج تیمار شوری آب آبیاری با هدایت الکتریکی برابر با  (S0)5/0،  (S1)2،  (S2)4،  (S3)6 و (S4) 8 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر بودند. آزمایش در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و با سه تکرار اجرا شد. در تیمارهای D، S0، S1، S2، S3 و S4، به ترتیب عملکرد زیست‌توده عدس برابر با 66/2094، 9/3621، 6/3525، 6/2771، 62/1965 و 6/1120 کیلوگرم بر هکتار، عملکرد دانه برابر با 25/399، 53/957، 07/932، 25/639، 33/279 و 82/46 کیلوگرم بر هکتار و عملکرد کاه برابر با 41/1695، 37/2664، 53/2593، 35/2132، 29/1686 و 78/1073 کیلوگرم بر هکتار اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد کاربرد آب تا سطح شوری S2  برای کشت عدس، قابل توصیه بود و شوری بیش‌تر از آن باعث کاهش محصول نسبت به شرایط دیم ‌شد. به طور دقیق‌تر در حد آستانه شوری آب برابر با 5/5، 3/5 و 6/5 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر، به ترتیب عملکرد زیست‌توده، دانه و کاه عدس برابر با شرایط دیم بود. در اثر اِعمال تنش شوری، عملکرد نسبی (نسبت به دیم) زیست‌توده، دانه و کاه به ترتیب با شیب 166/0، 325/0 و 129/0 کاهش یافت. این مسئله نشان داد حساسیّت عملکرد دانه به شوری آب، در مقایسه با کاه بیش‌تر بود. علت آن تأثیر تنش شوری بر اختلال در گرده‌افشانی گیاه و عدم دانه ‌بستن غلاف‌ها بود. مقدار بهره‌وری مصرف آب در تولید زیست‌توده خشک عدس در تیمارهای D، S0، S1، S2، S3 و S4 به ترتیب برابر با 55/3، 32/1، 3/1، 23/1، 11/1 و 97/0 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب محاسبه شد. دستاورد کلی پژوهش این بود که به‌منظور افزایش عملکرد گیاه عدس (نسبت به شرایط دیم)، امکان کاربرد آب‌شور (در حد تحمل گیاه) وجود داشت. در این شرایط، زمینه‌ای برای بهره‌برداری از منابع آب‌های لب‌شور منطقه نیز فراهم شد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Irrigation by Saline Water on Lentil Yield, Compared to Non-Saline Rainfed Cultivation Conditions (in Qazvin)

نویسنده [English]

  • reza saeidi
Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.
چکیده [English]

This research was conducted on lentil at Imam Khomeini international university in 2021. The treatments were included of rainfed (D) and five salinity levels of irrigation water with EC of 0.5 (S0), 2 (S1), 4 (S2), 6 (S3) and 8 (S4) dS.m-1. The experiment was performed in a randomized complete block design with three replications. In treatments of D, S0, S1, S2, S3 and S4, some parameters were measured; the biomass yields equal to 2094.66, 3621.9, 3525.6, 2771.6, 1965.62 and 1120.6 kg.h-1, the grain yield equal to 399.25, 957.53, 932.07, 639.25, 279.33 and 46.82 kg.ha-1 and the straw yield equal to 1695.41, 2664.37, 2593.53, 2132.35, 1686.29 and 1073.78 kg.ha-1,  respectively. The results showed that the use of water up to S2 salinity level was recommended for lentil cultivation. But higher salinity levels were reduced the yield relative to rainfed conditions. At the water salinity threshold of 5.5, 5.3 and 5.6 dS.m-1, the amounts of biomass, grain and straw were equal to rainfed conditions. Due to salinity stress, the relative yield (compared to rainfed) of biomass, grain and straw were decreased with a slope of 0.166, 0.325 and 0.129, respectively. As a result, the grain yield was more sensitive than the straw yield in terms of water salinity. The reason was the effect of salinity stress on plants pollination and lack of grain filling. The amount of water use efficiency (for production of lentil dry biomass) was calculated in treatments of D, S0, S1, S2, S3 and S4 which were equal to 3.55, 1.32, 1.3, 1.23, 1.11 and 0.97 kg.m-3, respectively. In general, the results showed the application feasibility of saline water (in the range of crop tolerance) for irrigation to increase the lentil yield (compared to rainfed conditions). In these conditions, the saline water resources of the region can be exploited.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Salinity stress
  • Water requirement
  • Water use efficiency
  • yield
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