بررسی ارتباط بین ضریب زبری با میزان برداشت و رسوب‌گذاری در خاک شخم‌خورده به کمک شبیه‌سازی باران در فلوم آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت منابع خاک، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران

2 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد

3 دانشیار پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی. تهران، ایران.

4 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

فرسایش خاک فرایندی است که تحت‌تأثیر زبری سطح (SSR) و بافت خاک، قرار می‌گیرد. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی ارتباط بین ضریب زبری با میزان برداشت و رسوب­گذاری در نمونه خاک شخم­خورده دیمزار مناطق کوهین، سرارود و گچساران به علت مستعد فرسایش بودن این خاک­ها پس از شخم، به کمک شبیه­سازی انجام شد. دو بارش (R1 و R2) با فاصله 4 ساعت با شدت 111 میلی­متر بر ساعت در فلوم آزمایشگاهی 8/5 مترمربعی با شیب 12 درصد شبیه­سازی شد. برای تعیین تلفات خاک، رواناب خروجی با رسوب همراه جمع­آوری شد. همچنین قبل و بعد از هر بارش عکس‌برداری انجام و مدل­ رقومی ­ارتفاع با اندازه پیکسل دو میلی­متری تهیه و از آن، زبری­ سطحی ­خاک محاسبه و به سه طبقه (زبر، متوسط و نرم) تقسیم شد. تفاوت مدل­ رقومی ­ارتفاع (DOD) در قبل و بعد از هر بارش (R0،R1 و R2) برای تعیین مقدار برداشت، رسوب­گذاری و نسبت­ تحویل ­رسوب (SDR) محاسبه شد و روند آن­ها با زبری بررسی شد. تلفات خاک در نمونه خاک گچساران در دو رویداد به ترتیب 4796 و 3909 گرم، کوهین 3465 و 2464 گرم و سرارود، 2679 و 2105 گرم اندازه­گیری شد. نسبت مقادیر برداشت به رسوب­گذاری در رویداد اول در خاک کوهین، سرارود و گچساران به ترتیب 4/5، 3/7 و 8/1 و در رویداد دوم به ترتیب 2/3، 9/1 و 2/1 برابر بوده­ است. مقدار SDR در بارش دوم در خاک کوهین، سرارود و گچساران به ترتیب 4/4، 3/6 و 3/2 برابر بیشتر از R1 شده است. رابطه رگرسیونی مستقیم بین تلفات خاک و زبری، با ضریب تعیین، 89/0 (P<0.05) به ­دست آمد. درنهایت می­توان با تهیه DEM و رفع عدم قطعیت­ آن، مقادیر مطمئنی از برداشت و رسوب­گذاری را به دست آورد.
فرسایش خاک فرایندی است که تحت‌تأثیر زبری سطح (SSR) و بافت خاک، قرار می‌گیرد. این پژوهش با هدف بررسی ارتباط بین ضریب زبری با میزان برداشت و رسوب­گذاری در نمونه خاک شخم­خورده دیمزار مناطق کوهین، سرارود و گچساران به علت مستعد فرسایش بودن این خاک­ها پس از شخم، به کمک شبیه­سازی انجام شد. دو بارش (R1 و R2) با فاصله 4 ساعت با شدت 111 میلی­متر بر ساعت در فلوم آزمایشگاهی 8/5 مترمربعی با شیب 12 درصد شبیه­سازی شد. برای تعیین تلفات خاک، رواناب خروجی با رسوب همراه جمع­آوری شد. همچنین قبل و بعد از هر بارش عکس‌برداری انجام و مدل­ رقومی ­ارتفاع با اندازه پیکسل دو میلی­متری تهیه و از آن، زبری­ سطحی ­خاک محاسبه و به سه طبقه (زبر، متوسط و نرم) تقسیم شد. تفاوت مدل­ رقومی ­ارتفاع (DOD) در قبل و بعد از هر بارش (R0،R1 و R2) برای تعیین مقدار برداشت، رسوب­گذاری و نسبت­ تحویل ­رسوب (SDR) محاسبه شد و روند آن­ها با زبری بررسی شد. تلفات خاک در نمونه خاک گچساران در دو رویداد به ترتیب 4796 و 3909 گرم، کوهین 3465 و 2464 گرم و سرارود، 2679 و 2105 گرم اندازه­گیری شد. نسبت مقادیر برداشت به رسوب­گذاری در رویداد اول در خاک کوهین، سرارود و گچساران به ترتیب 4/5، 3/7 و 8/1 و در رویداد دوم به ترتیب 2/3، 9/1 و 2/1 برابر بوده­ است. مقدار SDR در بارش دوم در خاک کوهین، سرارود و گچساران به ترتیب 4/4، 3/6 و 3/2 برابر بیشتر از R1 شده است. رابطه رگرسیونی مستقیم بین تلفات خاک و زبری، با ضریب تعیین، 89/0 (P<0.05) به ­دست آمد. درنهایت می­توان با تهیه DEM و رفع عدم قطعیت­ آن، مقادیر مطمئنی از برداشت و رسوب­گذاری را به دست آورد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the Relationship between Roughness Coefficient and Detachment and Deposition Rate in Plowed Soil using Rainfall Simulation in Laboratory Flume

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Gerami 1
  • Ahmad Karimi 2
  • Mahmood Arabkhedri 3
  • Hossein Asadi 4
1 PhD Candidate in Soil Resource Management, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
2 Assistant Professor of Soil Science and Engineeringm, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrkord University
3 Associate Professor, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran.
4 Associate Professor, Department of soil Engineering and Science, Terhran University, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Soil erosion is a process that is affected by surface roughness (SSR) and soil texture. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between roughness coefficient and detachment and deposition rate in plowed soil samples of drylands of Kouheen, Sararud and Gachsaran regions due to their susceptibility to erosion after plowing, by simulation. Two precipitations (R1 and R2) with a distance of 4 hours with an intensity of 111 mm / h were simulated in a 5.8 m2 laboratory flume with a slope of 12%. To determine soil loss, runoff was collected with sediment. Also, photographs were taken before and after each rainfall and a digital elevation model with a pixel size of 2 mm was prepared and from it, surface soil roughness was calculated and divided into three classes (rough, medium and soft). The difference of the digital elevation model (DOD) before and after each rainfall (R0, R1 and R2) was calculated to determine the amount of detachment, deposition and sediment delivery ratio (SDR) and their trend was roughly studied. Soil loss in Gachsaran soil sample were measured in 4796 and 3909 g, Kouheen, 3465 and 2464 g and Sararoud, 2679 and 2105 g, respectively. The ratio of harvest to sedimentation in the first event was 5.4, 7.3 and 1.8 in Kouheen, Sararud and Gachsaran soils and 3.2, 1.9 and 1.2 in the second event, respectively. The amount of SDR in the second rainfall in Kouheen, Sararud and Gachsaran soils has been 4.4, 6.3 and 2.3 times higher than R1, respectively. The direct regression relationship between soil loss and roughness with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.89 (P <0.05) was obtained. Finally, by preparing the DEM and eliminating its uncertainty, reliable amounts of detachment and deposition can be obtained.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • fallow
  • Dryland
  • Index of DEM of difference
  • Photogrammetry
  • Sediment delivery ratio
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