بررسی کارایی گیاه‌بهسازی خاک آلوده به نفت خام با مایه‌زنی خاک با براکی‌باکتریوم موریس و سودوموناس پوتیدا

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشکده اکولوژی خلیج فارس و دریای عمان، موسسه تحقیقات علوم شیلاتی کشور ،سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، بندرعباس، ایران.

2 گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران.

چکیده

فرآورده­های نفتی از پرکاربرد­ترین و گران­بهاترین مواد شیمیایی در دنیای مدرن به شمار می­آیند ولی آلودگی­های وابسته به استخراج و حمل نفت خام به یک دشواری جهانی برای محیط­زیست تبدیل‌ شده است. در این آزمایش کارایی گیاه­بهسازی، زیست پالایی و گیاه­بهسازی زیست­افزونی شده در حذف نفت خام از خاک بررسی شد. برای این کار، یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورها شامل سه سطح آلودگی خاک به نفت (صفر، 4 و 8 درصد وزنی)، چهار تیمار گیاهی (بدون گیاه، برموداگراس (Cynodon dactylon)، سورگوم (bicolor Sorghum) و جو (Hordeum vulgare)) و سه تیمار باکتری (بدون باکتری، باکتری بومی (Brachybacterium muris) و باکتری غیربومی (سودوموناس پوتیدا)) بودند. نتایج  نشان داد که درصد حذف نفت خام با کشت گیاه، مایه­­زنی خاک با باکتری و کاربرد هم‌زمان گیاه و باکتری به گونه چشم­گیری در برابر شاهد افزایش یافت. کشت گیاه در برابر مایه­زنی باکتری در کاهش غلظت مواد نفتی کاراتر بود و کارایی باکتری­ها با کشت گیاه به گونه چشم­گیر افزایش یافت. در هر سطح از آلودگی، بیشترین درصد حذف نفت با کاربرد هم‌زمان سورگوم و باکتری Brachybacterium muris  دیده شد. در همه تیمار گیاهی، بالاترین درصد حذف نفت در سطح 4 درصد آلودگی نفتی و مایه­زنی Brachybacterium muris  اندازه­گیری شد. آلودگی نفتی وزن خشک و غلظت کلروفیل برگ را به گونه چشم­گیری کاهش داد ولی کاربرد باکتری­ها (به ویژه باکتری­ بومی) اثرات منفی آلودگی نفتی بر گیاهان را به گونه چشم­گیری در برابر تیمارهای بدون مایه­زنی کاهش داد. آلودگی نفتی غلظت پرولین در برگ گیاهان را افزایش داد و با کاربرد باکتری­ بومی غلظت پرولین کاهش یافت. استقرار گیاه به همراه ریز جانداران می­تواند به‌عنوان جز کلیدی استراتژی حذف هیدروکربن­های نفتی در نظر گرفته شود. پس این گونه باکتری­ها و گیاهان را می­توان برای زیست پالایی خاک­های آلوده به نفت خام بکار برد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Study of the Phytoremediation Efficiency of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil by Inoculating the Soil with Brachybacterium muris and Pseudomonas putida

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hadi Koohkan 1
  • Mohammad Sedigh Mortazavi 1
  • Ahmad Golchin 2
  • Gholamali Akbarzadeh- Chomachaei 1
  • Fereshteh Saraji 1
  • Mohsen Gozari 1
1 Persian Gulf and Oman Sea Ecological Research Institute, Iranian fisheries science Research Institute, Agricultural Education and Extension Research Organization, Bandar Abbas, Hormozgan, Iran
2 Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Petroleum products are considered to be the most widely used and expensive chemicals in the modern world, but pollution from the extraction and transportation of crude oil has become a global environmental problem. In this experiment, the efficiency of phytoremediation, bioremediation and bio-enhanced phytoremediation in removing crude oil from soil was investigated. For this purpose, a factorial experiment was performed in a completely randomized design with three replications. Factors include three levels of soil oil pollution (zero, 4 and 8% by weight), four plant treatments (without plants, bermudagras (Cynodon dactylon), sorghum (Bicolor Sorghum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare)) and three bacterial treatments (without bacteria). Were native bacteria (Brachybacterium muris) and non-native bacteria (Pseudomonas putida). The results showed that the percentage of crude oil removal by plant cultivation, soil inoculation with bacteria and combined application of plant and bacteria increased significantly compared to the control. Plant culture was more effective than bacterial inoculation in reducing the concentration of petroleum products and the efficiency of bacteria increased significantly with plant culture. At each level of contamination, the highest percentage of oil removal was observed with the combined application of sorghum and Brachybacterium muris. In all plant treatments, the highest oil removal percentage was measured at 4% oil pollution and Brachybacterium muris inoculation. Oil pollution significantly reduced leaf dry weight and chlorophyll concentration, but the use of bacteria (especially native bacteria) significantly reduced the negative effects of oil pollution on plants compared to non-inoculation treatments. Oil pollution increased the proline concentration in the leaves of plants and decreased the proline concentration with the use of native bacteria. Establishment of plant with microorganisms can be considered as a key component of the strategy to remove hydrocarbons. Consequently, these bacterial and plant species can be used for the biodegradation of soils contaminated with crude oil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Petroleum pollution
  • Brachybacterium muris
  • bermudagras
  • Sorghum
  • bioaugmented phytoremediation
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