ارزیابی مدل‌های رگرسیونی چند متغیره در تخمین اجزای تبخیر و تعرق ذرت علوفه‌ای، در شرایط تنش شوری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی(ره)، قزوین، ایران.

چکیده

تخمین اجزاءِ تبخیر و تعرق گیاه ذرت با استفاده از مدل‌های تجربی، برای مدیریت مصرف آب در آبیاری سودمند است. در این پژوهش، مقدار اجزاءِ تبخیر و تعرق ذرت در مراحل رشد و برای شرایط تنش شوری، مدل‌سازی شد. در سال 1399 و در دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی(ره)، تیمارهای شوری از طریق آب با هدایت الکتریکی (S0)5/0، (S1)1/2، (S2)5/3 و (S3)7/5 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر، در بستر کشت مینی‌لایسمتر اِعمال شد. مدل‌سازی اجزاءِ تبخیر-تعرق ذرت، با توابع رگرسیونی شامل فرم‌های خطی، نمایی، لگاریتمی، درجه دوم و توانی انجام شد. پارامترهای تبخیر - تعرق (ETc)، ضرایب تنش تبخیر-تعرق (Ks) و حساسیّت مرحله رشد گیاه (Kpi) به‌عنوان متغیرهای مستقل و پارامترهای تعرق(T)  و تبخیر (E) به‌عنوان متغیر وابسته (در مدل‌های مجزا) در نظر گرفته شد. ضرایب مجهول در معادلات توسط نرم‌افزار SPSS برآورد شد و مدل‌های رگرسیونی چند متغیره تولید شد. از تیمار S0 تا S3، مقادیر پارامترهای تبخیر - تعرق، تعرق و تبخیر (در کل دوره رشد) به ترتیب در بازه 420-5/307، 289-150 و 131- 5/157 میلی‌متر اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد در شرایط تنش شوری، تعرق ذرت به میزان بیشتری نسبت به تبخیر - تعرق کاهش یافت. اما به همان اندازه، به مقدار تبخیر از سطح خاک افزوده شد. در ارزیابی مدل‌سازی‌، مدل‌های نمایی و درجه دوم به ترتیب به‌عنوان مدل‌های بهینه برای تخمین مقادیر تعرق و تبخیر انتخاب شدند. مقدار ضریب حساسیّت در چهار مرحله رشد (Kp) به ترتیب برابر با 556/0، 972/0، 315/1 و 432/0 (در مدل نمایی) و 485/1، 238/1، 447/0 و 816/0 (در مدل درجه دوم) بود. دستاورد پژوهش این بود که مدل‌های رگرسیونی عملکرد قابل قبولی برای شبیه‌سازی اجزاءِ تبخیر و تعرق ذرت در شرایط تنش شوری داشتند. ازاین‌رو با تخمین مقدار تعرق، نیاز خالص آبی گیاه به طور واقعی برآورد شده و راندمان مصرف آب افزایش می‌یابد. همچنین با تخمین مقدار تلفات تبخیر، راندمان کاربرد آب در آبیاری دقیق‌تر محاسبه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Multivariate Regression Models in Estimation of Evaporation and Transpiration Components of Maize, under Salinity Stress Conditions

نویسنده [English]

  • reza saeidi
Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Estimation of evaporation and transpiration components of maize using by experimental models, is useful for management the water consumption in irrigation. In this research, the amounts of evaporation and transpiration components of maize were modeled for growth stages and salinity stress conditions. Salinity treatments were applied by water with EC of 0.5(S0), 2.1(S1), 3.5(S2), and 5.7(S3)dS.m-1, in the mini-lysimeter. Modeling of maize evapotranspiration components was performed by regression functions of linear, exponential, logarithmic, polynomial and power. Parameters of evapotranspiration (ETc), coefficients of evapotranspiration stress (Ks) and crop growth stage sensitivity (Kpi) were considered as the independent variables and transpiration (T) and evaporation (E) parameters (in separate models) were considered as the dependent variables. The equations coefficients were estimated by SPSS software and the multivariate regression models were generated. From S0 to S3 treatments, the values of evapotranspiration, transpiration and evaporation parameters (in the all of growth period) were measured in the range of 420-307.5, 289-150 and 131-157.5 mm, respectively. Under salinity stress conditions, the maize transpiration was decreased to a more value relative to evapotranspiration. But the evaporation was increased to the same extent. In modeling evaluation, exponential and polynomial models were selected as the optimal models for estimation the transpiration and evaporation rates, respectively. The sensitivity coefficient values (Kp) in four growth stages were equal to 0.556, 0.972, 1.315 and 0.432 (in exponential model) and 1.485, 1.238, 0.447 and 0.816 (in polynomial model). The result of this research was that regression models had an acceptable performance for simulation the evaporation and transpiration components of maize, under salinity stress conditions. Therefore, by estimation the transpiration amount, the crop net water requirement is estimated actually and the water use efficiency increases. Also, by estimation the amount of evaporation losses, the water application efficiency is calculated accurately.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Evaporation
  • experimental model
  • growth stages
  • transpiration
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