تأثیر کاتیونهای کلسیم و آمونیوم بر سرعت رهاسازی پتاسیم غیر تبادلی در برخی از خاک‌های آهکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک. دانشکده کشاورزی. دانشگاه شهرکرد.شهرکرد. ایران

2 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک. دانشکده کشاورزی.دانشگاه شهرکرد.شهرکرد. ایران

3 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک. دانشکده کشاورزی. دانشگاه شهرکرد. شهرکرد. ایران

چکیده

سرعت رهاسازی پتاسیم غیر تبادلی، نقش مهمی در عرضه پتاسیم تبادلی برای گیاهان، به‌خصوص در خاک‌های محتوی کانی‌های پتاسیم دار از جمله فلدسپارها و میکاها دارد. مطالعه‌ای در مورد سرعت آزاد شدن پتاسیم غیر تبادلی تحت‌تأثیر کاتیون‌ها در خاک‌های آهکی استان چهارمحال‌وبختیاری انجام نشده است، بنابراین هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تأثیر کاتیون‌های کلسیم و آمونیوم (از دو منبع کلرید کلسیم و کلرید آمونیوم) بر سرعت رهاسازی پتاسیم غیر تبادلی در 10 خاک آهکی بود. نمونه‌های خاک اشباع با کلسیم به روش عصاره‌گیری متوالی و با استفاده از کلرید کلسیم و کلرید آمونیوم 01/0 مولار در دمای 1±25 درجه سانتی‌گراد به مدت 2 تا 2017 ساعت عصاره‌گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد، نمودارهای مقدار تجمعی پتاسیم غیر تبادلی آزاد شده در زمان 168 ساعت ناپیوستگی در شیب را نشان دادند؛ بنابراین نمودارها به دو بخش، شامل مرحله اول (168-2 ساعت) و مرحله دوم (2017-168 ساعت) تقسیم شد. نتایج نشان داد که مقدار پتاسیم غیر تبادلی آزادشده در خاک‌های موردمطالعه در مرحله اول در عصاره‌گیرهای کلرید کلسیم و کلرید آمونیوم 01/0 مولار به ترتیب در دامنه 33/220-50/96 و 50/549-67/189 و در مرحله دوم به ترتیب در دامنه 33/391-67/172 و 0/748 – 67/320 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم متفاوت بود. بر اساس ضرایب تبیین و خطای استاندارد، پتاسیم غیر تبادلی آزادشده در هر دو مرحله و در هر دو عصاره‌گیر با استفاده از معادله‌های مرتبه صفر، الوویچ ساده، تابع توانی و انتشار پارابولیکی توصیف شد. همچنین، معادله تابع توانی در هر دو عصاره‌گیر قادر به توصیف رضایت‌بخش سرعت آزادسازی پتاسیم غیر تبادلی بود. ضرایب سرعت آزاد شدن پتاسیم در خاک‌های مختلف متفاوت بود. استفاده از معادلات رگرسیونی چند متغیره در هر دو مرحله آزادسازی پتاسیم و در هر دو عصاره‌گیر نشان داد که میزان آزاد شدن پتاسیم غیر تبادلی در خاک‌ها به غلظت پتاسیم غیر تبادلی، غلظت پتاسیم تبادلی و ظرفیت تبادل کاتیونی خاک بستگی داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Calcium and Ammonium Cations on the Kinetics of Non-exchangeable Potassium Release in Some Calcareous Soils

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marzieh Barati Zanyani 1
  • Alireza Hossienpur 2
  • Mohammad hassan Salehi 3
1 Department of Soil Science and Engineering.faculty of Agriculture. University Shahrekord. Shahrekord. Iran
2 Department of Soil Science and Engineering. faculty of Agriculture. Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
3 Department of Soil Science and Engineering. faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University.
چکیده [English]

The release rate of non-exchangeable potassium (NEK) plays a significant role in supplying K for plants; particularly in soils containing bearing minerals such as micas and feldespars. No study has been conducted on NEK release kinetics influence of cations in calcareous soils of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of cations calcium and ammonium (from two sources of calcium chloride and ammonium chloride) on kinetics of NEK release in 10 calcareous soils. Soil samples of calcium-saturated were extracted using successive extractions with 0.01 M CaCl2 and NH4Cl solutions for 2-2017 h at 25±1 0C. The results showed that amount of NEK released have a discontinuity in slope at 168 h. Therefore, corves were divided into two segments, including the first stage (2-168 h) and the second stage (168-2017 h). The results showed that released NEK in the studied soils in the first stage, in the 0.01 M Cacl2 and NH4cl extractors were different in the range of 96.50-220.33 and 189.67-549.50, respectively, and in the second stage, in the range of 172.67-391.33, and 320.67-748.0 mg kg-1 respectively. Based on the coefficients of determination (R2) and standard error (SE), the released NEK described in both segment and in both extractors using the zero order, power function, simplified ellovich, and parabolic diffusion equations. Also, the power function equation in both extractants was able to satisfactorily describe the kinetics of NEK release. The kinetics coefficients of the release of NEK were different in the studied soils. the use of multivariate regression equations in both segments and in both extractors of potassium release showed that the NEK release in soils depended NEK concentration, exchangeable potassium concentration and cation exchange capacity of the soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cations
  • Kinetic equations
  • non-exchangeable potassium
  • release
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