اثر عمق خاک و ارتفاع منطقه بر فعالیت آنزیم‎های مختلف در خاک‎های جنگلی منطقه ارسباران

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه خاکشناسی-دانشکده کشاورزی-دانشگاه زنجان-زنجان-ایران

2 گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

10.22059/ijswr.2022.335043.669151

چکیده

آنزیم‎های خاک شاخص‎های مؤثری از کیفیت خاک محسوب می‎شوند. در پژوهش حاضر، فعالیت برخی آنزیم‎های خاک شامل اوره‎آز، بتاگلوکوزیداز، سلولاز، آریل‎سولفاتاز، دهیدروژناز و فسفاتازهای اسیدی و قلیایی در خاک‎های جنگلی منطقه ارسباران تحت‌تأثیر دو عامل ارتفاع منطقه و عمق خاک مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور، یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‎های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. فعالیت آنزیم‎های خاک در نمونه‎های برداشت‎شده از عمق‎های مختلف خاک (20-0، 40-20، 60-40، 80-60 و 100-80 سانتی‎متری) در ارتفاعات مختلف (600-0، 1200-600، 1800-1200 و 2400-1800 متری) و در شیب شمالی منطقه اندازه‎گیری شد. نتایج نشان‎دهنده اثر معنی‎دار عمق خاک و ارتفاع بر فعالیت آنزیم‎های موردمطالعه بود؛ هرچند، عکس‎العمل آنزیم‎های مختلف به این عوامل یکسان نبود. بیشترین فعالیت آنزیم‎های اوره‎آز، بتاگلوکوزیداز، سلولاز، آریل‎سولفاتاز و فسفاتازهای اسیدی و قلیایی در لایه سطحی خاک (20-0 سانتی‎متری) اندازه‎گیری شد که به ترتیب با افزایش عمق به طور میانگین 50، 71، 81، 71، 59 و 66 درصد کاهش یافت. اما، فعالیت آنزیم دهیدروژناز با افزایش عمق 15 تا 43 برابر افزایش یافت. بعلاوه، با افزایش ارتفاع از 600-0 تا 2400-1800 متری، درحالی‎که به طور متوسط فعالیت آنزیم‎های اوره‎آز، آریل‎سولفاتاز و بتاگلوکوزیداز به ترتیب 15/1، 4/1 و 19/1 برابر افزایش یافت، فعالیت آنزیم‎های سلولاز و فسفاتازهای اسیدی و قلیایی به ترتیب 26، 4/10 و 6/9 درصد کاهش یافت. اما، اثر ارتفاع بر فعالیت دهیدروژناز معنی‎دار نبود. نتایج همچنین حاکی از همبستگی مثبت و معنی‎دار (P ≤ 0.01) کربن آلی و کربن زیست‎توده میکروبی با فعالیت تمام آنزیم‎های بررسی‎شده به‎جز دهیدروژناز بود. یافته‎های این پژوهش چگونگی تغییرات فعالیت آنزیم‎های مختلف با دو عامل عمق خاک و ارتفاع را آشکار می‎نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Soil Depth and Altitude on the Activity of Different Enzymes in Forest Soils of Arasbaran Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • elham jozdaemi 1
  • Ahmad Golchin 2
1 Department of Soil Science, School Agriculture, University of zanjan,Zanjan,Iran
2 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil enzymes are considered as the effective indicators of soil quality. In the present study, the activity of some soil enzymes, including β-glucosidase, urease, cellulase, arylsulfatase, dehydrogenase, and acidic and alkaline phosphatase was investigated in Arasbaran forest soils affected by two factors of altitude and soil depth. For this purpose, a factorial experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design and three replications. Enzyme activity was measured in soil samples taken from different soil depths (0–20, 20–40, 40–60, 60–80, and 80–100 cm) at various altitudes (0–600, 600–1200, 1200–1800, and 1800–2400 m) on a northern aspect. The results showed significant effects of soil depth, and altitude on the activity of the enzymes studied, but the reaction of different enzymes to these factors was not the same. The highest activity of urease, β-glucosidase, cellulase, arylsulfatase, and acidic and alkaline phosphatases was measured at the surface layer (0–20 cm) of the soils, which on average decreased by 50, 81, 71, 71, 59, and 66% as soil depth increased, respectively. However, dehydrogenase activity increased by 15 to 43 times with increasing soil depth. Additionally, with the increase in altitude from 0–600 to 1800–2400 m, while the activity of urease, arylsulfatase, and β-glucosidase increased on average by 1.15, 1.4, and 1.19 times, the activity of cellulase, and acidic and alkaline phosphatases decreased by 26, 10.4, and 9.6%, respectively. But, the effect of altitude on the dehydrogenase activity was not significant. The results also showed a significant positive correlation (P ≤ 0.01) between organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon, and the activity of all studied enzymes except dehydrogenase. Findings of this study reveal how the activity of different soil enzymes changes with two factors of soil depth and altitude.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Soil enzymes
  • Climate factors
  • Organic carbon
  • Microbial biomass carbon
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