بررسی شاخص‌های جذب و زمان پالایش سرب در خاک آلوده با استفاده از گیاه ترب سفید

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران.

10.22059/ijswr.2021.333746.669126

چکیده

آلودگی خاک به فلزات سنگین افزون بر کاهش تولید و کیفیت محصولات کشاورزی از طریق زنجیره غذایی وارد بدن انسان می‌شود. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی توان جذب و زمان لازم برای پالایش خاک آلوده به سرب توسط گیاه ترب سفید در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با پنج تیمار شامل 10(شاهد)، 150، 300، 600 و 900 میلی‌گرم سرب در کیلوگرم خاک و سه تکرار در دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه گیلان اجرا شد. پس از طی دوره رشد، گیاهان برداشت و میزان سرب در ریشه و اندام هوایی اندازه‌گیری و شاخص­های TF و BCF، زمان پالایش و نیز آهنگ برداشت سرب در سطوح 5 ،10 و 15 درصد آلودگی محاسبه شد. نتایج نشان داد با افزایش غلظت سرب، ماده خشک گیاهی کاهش معنی­داری یافت. همچنین سرب بیشتر در ریشه گیاه تجمع یافت و مقدار انتقال آن به اندام‌های هوایی کم بود به‌طوری‌که بیشترین مقدار سرب تجمع یافته در ریشه و اندام هوایی در تیمار 900 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم به ترتیب برابر با 09/191 و 56/28 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم بود. دامنه تغییرات شاخص‌های TF و BCF به ترتیب 15/0 تا 55/0 و 22/0 تا 86/2 به دست آمد. نتایج نشان داد برای پالایش 15 درصد از سرب در تیمار 300 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم، حدود 8 سال زمان لازم است. به‌طورکلی با افزایش غلظت و سطح آلودگی، زمان لازم برای پالایش نیز افزایش می‌یابد. لیکن باتوجه‌به اینکه برای پالایش فلزات سنگین، حذف کامل آن‌ها از خاک لازم نمی‌باشد، پالایش گیاهی روشی مناسب برای آلودگی‌زدایی خاک‌های آلوده به فلزات سنگین بوده و باتوجه‌به توان بالای بیش‌اندوزی و تولید زیست‌توده فراوان ترب سفید، می‌توان از این گیاه برای پالایش خاک‌های با آلودگی متوسط به سرب استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessing Uptake Indices and Clean Up Time of Lead in Contaminated Soil Using White Horseradish (Raphanus sativus cv. Longipinnatus)

نویسنده [English]

  • Safoora Asadi Kapourchal
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University Of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Soil contamination with heavy metals in addition to reducing the production and quality of agricultural crops enters the human body through the food chain. The objective of this study was to investigate the adsorption capability and clean up time required for phytoremediation of Pb-contaminated soils by white horseradish. For this purpose, a randomized block experimental design with five treatments of 10 (control), 150, 300, 600 and 900 mg Pb/kg soil and three replicates was established in the Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan. Plants were harvested when fully developed. The lead concentrations in the soil, roots and shoots were measured afterwards. TF and BCF indices, clean up time and uptake rate of Pb for 5%, 10%, and 15% of contamination were then calculated. The results indicated that by increasing the lead concentration, plant dry matter decreased significantly. Also, lead accumulation occurred mostly in roots rather than in shoots. The maximum lead concentration in the root and shoot in the 900 mg/kg treatment were 191.9 and 28.56 mg/kg, respectively. The variation range of TF and BCF indices were 0.15 to 0.55 and 0.22 to 2.86, respectively. Results further revealed that it takes 8 years to remediate 15% of Pb when soil Pb contamination is 300 mg/kg treatment. Generally, with increasing lead concentration, the time needed for phytoextraction is also increased. However, since the complete removal of heavy metals does not need to clean up them from the soil, phytoremediation is a suitable method for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Due to high biomass and capability of lead accumulation of white horseradish, this plant might be used to remediate lead from moderate Pb-contaminated soils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Accumulator
  • Bioconcentration Factor
  • Heavy metals
  • Phytoremediation
  • Translocation factor
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