بررسی برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و ارزیابی قابلیت بعد فراکتالی ذرات اولیه خاک در کاربری‌های مختلف

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری خاکشناسی- فیزیک و حفاظت خاک، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد

2 گروه علوم خاک,دانشکده کشاورزی،دانشگاه شهرکرد،شهرکرد.ایران

3 گروه علوم خاک،دانشکده کشاورزی،دانشکاه شهرکرد،شهرکرد،ایران

10.22059/ijswr.2021.329439.669055

چکیده

باتوجه‌به تنوع کاربری زمین در نواحی خشک و نیمه­خشک در کشور، نوع بهره­برداری از زمین می­تواند خصوصیات کیفی خاک، به­ویژه کیفیت فیزیکی، را دستخوش تغییر نماید. این پژوهش، با هدف بررسی اثر کاربری­های مختلف اراضی بر ویژگی­های خاک در حوضه آبخیز باغان در جنوب شرقی استان بوشهر با وسعتی حدود 929 کیلومترمربع که از دیدگاه کشاورزی دارای اهمیت می­باشد، اجرا شد. از خاک سطحی (20-0 سانتیمتر) کاربری­های مرتع، اراضی زراعی و باغات، 120 نمونه مرکب برداشته شد. محل­های نمونه‌برداری با استفاده از تکنیک ابر مکعب لاتین تعیین شدند. ویژگی­های شن (Sand)، سیلت (silt)، رس (clay)، جرم مخصوص ظاهری (ρb)، تخلخل (F)، تخلخل مؤثر (Φeff)، منافذ درشت (MAP)، میانگین وزنی (MWD) و هندسی قطر خاکدانه­ها (GMD)، پایداری خاکدانه­ها در آب (WSA)، شاخص پایداری خاکدانه­ها (SI)، تخلخل تهویه­ای (AC)، آب قابل‌استفاده گیاه (AWC)، مقدار نسبی آب (RWC)، نقطه پژمردگی دائمی (PWP)، رطوبت گنجایش زراعی (FC)، و رطوبت اشباع (ϴS)، با روش­های معمول تعیین و بعد فراکتال (Db)، به روش جرم - قطر محاسبه شد. کاربری­های مرتع، زراعی و باغ بر تمام ویژگی­های موردمطالعه به جز شاخص گنجایش هواییAC) ) اثر معنی­داری (P<0.01) را نشان دادند. نتایج مقایسه میانگین کاربری مرتع و زراعت نشان داد که از تمام ویژگی­های موردمطالعه فقط بر ویژگی­های PWP، FC و ϴS تفاوت معنی­داری داشتند. در کاربری باغ در مقایسه با کاربری مرتع افزایشی معنی­داری در Sand، F، Φeff، MAP، MWD، GMD، WSA، SI، ϴS، FC، PWP، AWC و RWC و کاهشی معنی­داری در Silt، Clay، ρb و Db مشاهده شد. برازش معادله خطی بر داده­های اندازه­گیری شده نشان داد که با کاهش مقدار رس و سیلت و افزایش مقدار شن، بعد فرکتال کاهش یافت. ضرایب تبیین تابع خطی بعد فرکتال با درصد شن، سیلت و رس به ترتیب 8/0، 55/0 و 82/0 بود. بر اساس ویژگی­های موردمطالعه، مطلوب­ترین کیفیت فیزیکی خاک در کاربری باغ مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Some Physical Properties and Evaluation of Fractal Dimension of Primary Soil Particles in Different Uses

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somayeh dehghani 1
  • Mehdi Naderi 2
  • Ahmad Karimi 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture University of Shahrekord, Shahrekord, Iran
2 Soil science Department,faculty of agriculture,shahrekord university,shahrekord,iran
3 Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture University of Shahrekord, Shahrekord, Iran
چکیده [English]

Despite the diversity of land use in arid and semi-arid areas of the country, land use can change the soil quality characteristics, as well as soil physical quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different land use on soil characteristics in the Baghan watershed in the southeast of Bushehr province with an area of about 929 square kilometers. That region has an important role in the production of agricultural products. From the surface soil (0-20 cm) of range, croplands and orchards, 120 composite soil samples were taken. Sampling sites were determined using the Latin hypercube technique. sand (Sa), silt (Si), clay (Cl), bulk density (ρb), porosity (F), air content (AC), effective porosity (Φeff), macro pores (MAP), mean weight (MWD), geometry mean of aggregate diameter (GMD), water aggregate stability (WSA), aggregate stability index (SI), relative water content (RWC), saturated moisture (ϴS), field capacity moisture (FC), permanent wilting point (PWP) and availaible water content (AWC) were determined by conventional methods and fractal dimension (Db) was calculated by mass-diameter method. range, crop land and orchard land uses had significant effect (P <0.01) on all studied characteristics except AC. Mean comparison showed that in range and crop land, among all studied characteristics, only PWP, FC and ϴS were significantly different. In orchard, compared to range, there is a significant increases trend in Sa, F, Φeff, MAP, MWD, GMD, WSA, SI, ،S, FC, PWP, AWC and RWC and a significant decreases trend in Si, Cl , Ρb and Db were observed. Fitting of the linear equation to the measured data showed that with decreasing the clay and silt and increasing the sand, the fractal dimension decreased. The coefficients of explanation of the linear function of the fractal dimension with the percentages of sand, silt and clay were 0.8, 0.55 and 0.82, respectively. Based on the studied characteristics, the most desirable physical quality of soil was observed in orchard land use.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Baghan watershed
  • Different Managements
  • fractal dimension
  • soil physical properties
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