بررسی اثر بیوچار و منابع مختلف نیتروژن بر ویژگی‌های رشد و عملکرد گیاه برنج (Oryza sativa L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اگروتکنولوژی (فیزیولوژی گیاهی)، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ‏واحد چالوس، مازندران، ایران.

2 استادیار و عضو هیئت علمی گروه کشاورزی،‏ دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ‏واحد چالوس، مازندران، ایران.

3 .استادیار، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه بذر، مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، معاونت مازندران، سازمان تحقیقات،آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی،آمل، ایران

4 استادیار،گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد چالوس، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،چالوس، ایران

10.22059/ijswr.2022.328549.669047

چکیده

این پژوهش به منظور بررسی اثر بیوچار و منابع نیتروژن بر صفات زراعی و نیتروژن خاک و گیاه در برنج رقم تیسا و در قالب دو آزمایش مزرعه‌ای و گلخانه‌ای در ایستگاه تحقیقات برنج تنکابن اجرا شد. طرح آماری مورد استفاده، به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و شامل سه تکرار بود. تیمارهای مورد آزمایش شامل بیوچار در سه سطح (صفر،‏ 20 و 40 تن در هکتار) و منابع نیتروژن در سه سطح (صفر، کود شیمیایی نیتروژن به مقدار 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار و تلقیح بذر با باکتری‏های تثبیت‏کننده نیتروژن (آزوسپیریلوم، ازتوباکتر و سودوموناس) بود. نتایج آزمایش مزرعه‌ای نشان داد که در بین منابع مختلف نیتروژن، کاربرد کود شیمیایی نیتروژن منجر به افزایش معنی­دار برخی از اجزای عملکرد، عملکرد دانه و غلظت نیتروژن در گیاه گردید، به طوری که تعداد پنجه بارور در کپه، عملکرد دانه و غلظت نیتروژن در دانه و کاه به­ترتیب حدود 4/20، 6/33، 8/17 و 7/24 درصد در مقایسه با عدم مصرف نیتروژن افزایش یافت و اثر متقابل تیمارها (کود شیمیایی نیتروژن ×20 تن در هکتار بیوچار، کود شیمیایی نیتروژن ×40 تن در هکتار بیوچار، کاربرد باکتری ×20 تن در هکتار بیوچار، کاربرد باکتری ×40 تن در هکتار بیوچار) در میزان نیتروژن کاه معنی‏دار شد. در شرایط گلخانه بیشترین عملکرد دانه (17/90 گرم) در تیمار کاربرد کود شیمیایی نیتروژن ×40 تن در هکتار بیوچار و بیشترین غلظت نیتروژن دانه (64/0 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم) در تیمار کاربرد باکتری ×40 تن در هکتار بیوچار مشاهد شد. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق، کاربرد کود شیمیایی نیتروژن در مقدار 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار برای دستیابی به حداکثر عملکرد دانه برنج و همچنین استفاده از بیوچار در مقادیر 20 و 40 تن در هکتار جهت بهبود حاصلخیزی خاک مناسب ارزیابی گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the Effect of Biochar and Different Sources of Nitrogen on the Growth Characteristics of Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • seyede hajar banihashemian 1
  • ali eftekhari 2
  • morteza nasiri 3
  • Seyed Amir Abbas Mousavi Mirkalaei 4
1 PhD student in Agrotechnology (Plant Physiology), Islamic Azad University, Chalous Branch, Mazandaran, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor and Faculty Member of agriculture Department, Islamic Azad University, Chalous Branch, Mazandaran, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Research Department, Rice Research Institute of Iran (RRII), Mazandaran Branch, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Amol, Iran.
4 AssistantProfessor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Chalous Branch, Islamic Azad University, Chalous, Iran.
چکیده [English]

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of biochar and nitrogen sources on agronomic traits and soil and plant nitrogen in rice Tisa in Tonekabon rice research station. The statistical design used was factorial in the form of randomized complete blocks with three replications. The treated treatments included biochar at three levels (control, 20 and 40 t ha−1) and nitrogen sources at three levels (control, nitrogen fertilizer at 200 kg ha-1 and inoculation of seeds with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Azospirillum, Aztobacter and Pseudomonas). The results showed that among different nitrogen sources, the application of nitrogen chemical fertilizer led to a significant increase in some yield components, grain yield and nitrogen concentration in the plant, so that the number of fertile tillers per hill, grain yield, and nitrogen concentration in the grain and straw were increased by about 20.4%, 33.6%, 17.8% and 24.7%, respectively, compared to the control or without use of nitrogen.The results showed that in field conditions the interaction of treatments (Nitrogen chemical fertilizer × 20 tha−1 biochar, nitrogen chemical fertilizer × t ha−1 biochar, bacterial application × 20 t ha−1 biochar, bacterial application × 40 t ha−1 biochar) on straw nitrogen was significant. Nitrogen application in field conditions led to a significant increase in plant height, number of fertile tillers per mound, grain yield, biological yield and nitrogen concentration in grain. In greenhouse conditions the highest grain yield (90.71 g) in the interaction application of nitrogen fertilizer With 40 t ha−1 biochar of and the highest concentration of grain nitrogen (0.64 mg kg-1) were observed in bacterial inoculation treatment with 40 t ha−1. According to the results of this study, the application of nitrogen fertilizer in the amount of 200 kg ha-1 to achieve maximum rice grain yield and also the use of biochar in the amount of 20 and 40 t ha−1 to improve soil fertility is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Growth- promoting Bacteria
  • Biochar
  • yield
  • plant nitrogen concentration
  1. Ajayi, A. E. and Horn, R. (2016). Modification of chemical and hydrophysical properties of two texturally differentiated soils due to varying magnitudes of added biochar. Soil Tillage Research. 164, 34–44.

    Ali, I., He, L., Ullah, S., Quan, Z., Wei, S., Iqbal, A., Munsif, F., Shah, T., Xuan, Y., Luo, Y., Tianyuan, L., and Ligeng, J. (2020). Biochar addition coupled with nitrogen fertilization impacts on soil quality, crop productivity, and nitrogen uptake under double-cropping system. Food and Energy Security 9(3), 1-20.

    Asai, H., Samson, B. K., Stephan, H. M., Songyikhangsuthor, K., Homma, K., Kiyono,Y., Inoue, Y., Shiraiwa,T., and Horie, T. (2009). Biochar amendment techniques for upland rice production in Northern Laos: 1. Soil physical properties, leaf SPAD and grain yield. Field Crops Research. 111(1-2), 81–84.

    Azhar, A., Muhammad,Y., Muhammad, K., Muhammad, N., Muhammad, Z., Yasir, H., and Saleem, M. (2017). Effect of Biochar Amended Urea on Nitrogen Economy of Soil for Improving the Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Under Field Condition, Journal of Plant Nutrition, 40, 2303-2311.

    Bagayoko, M. (2012). Effects of plant density, organic matter and nitrogen rates on rice yields in the system of rice intensification (SRI) in the “office du niger” in Mali. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 7(8), 620-632.

    Bashan, Y., Holguin, G., and de-Bashan, L. E. (2004). Azospirillum-plant relationships: Physiological, molecular, agricultural and environmental advances. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 50, 521-577.

    Bewley, J. D., Bradford, K., and Hilhorst, H. (2012). Seeds: physiology of               development, germination and dormancy. Springer Science & Business Media.

    1. Butnan, S., Deenik, J. L., Toomsan, B., Antal, M. J., and Vityakon, P. (2015). Biochar characteristics and application rates affecting corn growth and properties of soils contrasting in texture and mineralogy. Geoderma 237, 105–106. 9. Che, S. G., Zhao, B. Q., Li, Y. T., Yuan, L., Li, W., Lin, Z. A., Hu, S.W., and Shen    B. (2015). Review grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in rice production regions in China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 14(12), 2456-2466.
    2. Chen, J. (2006). The combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers and biofertilizer for crop growth and soil fertility. International Workshop on Sustained Management of the Soil-Rhizosphere System for Efficient Crop Production and Fertilizer Use. Thailand.11pp.
    3. Cui, Y. F., Meng, J., Wang, Q. X., Zhang, W. M., Cheng, X. Y., and Chen, W. F. (2017). Effect of straw and biochar addition on soil nitrogen, carbon, and super rice yield in cold waterlogged paddy soils of north China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 16(5), 1064-1074.
    4. Dastan, S., Siavoshi, M., Zakavi, D., Ghanbari Malidarreh, A., Yadi, R., Ghorbannia, E., and Nasiri, A. (2012). Application of nitrogen and silicon rates on morphological and chemical lodging related characteristics in rice (Oryza sativa) north of Iran. Journal of Agriculture Science. 4(6), 12–18.
    5. Djaman, K., Mel, V.C., Ametonou, F. Y., El-Namaky, R., Diallo, M. D., and Koudahe, K. (2018). Effect of nitrogen fertilizer dose and application timing on yield and nitrogen use efficiency of irrigated hybrid rice under semi-arid conditions. Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Research. 9(2), 223.
    6. Dong, D., Feng, Q., McGrouther, K., Yang, M., Wang, H., and Wu. W. (2015). Effects of biochar amendment on rice growth and nitrogen retention in a waterlogged paddy field. Journal of Soils and Sediments. 15, 153-162.
    7. Erfani, R., Abadian, H., Amooghli Tabari, M., Nasiri, M., and Maleki, A. (2020). New rice cultivation cultivation instructions Tisa, pp. 1516. Egamberdieva, D., and Lugtenberg, B. (2014). Use of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to alleviate salinity stress in plants. In: Miransari, M. (Ed.) Use of microbes for the alleviation of soil stresses. Springer. New York. pp. 73-96.
    8. Fageria, N. K., and Santos, A. B. (2008). Yield physiology of dry Bean. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 31, 983-1004.
    9. Fallah A., Mohammadian, M., Fathai, N., and Elyasi, H. (2018). Interactive effect of nitrogen and variety on agronomical characteristics, yield and quality of grain of rice in replanting. Journal of Applied Research of plant Echophysiology. 4(2), 29-48. (In Persian).

    Faraji, F., Esfehani, M,. Kavoosi, M,. Nahvi, M. and B, Rabiyi. )2012(. Effects of split application and levels of nitrogen fertilizer on growth indices and grain yield of rice (Oryza sativa Cv. Khazar). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science. 43(2): 323-333.

    Fathi, A., Farnia, A., and Maleki, A. (2013). Effects of nitrogen and phosphorous biofertilizers on yield and yield components of corn AS71 in Dareh-shahr, Iran. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 7(1), 105-114. (In Persian).

    1. Gebremedhin, G. H., Haileselassie, B., Berhe, D., and Belay, T. (2015). Effect of biochar on yield and yield components of wheat and post-harvest soil properties in Tigray, Ethiopia. Journal of Fertilizers and Pesticides. 6, 158-162.
    2. Ghorbani, M., Asadi, H., and Abrishamkesh, S. (2019). Effects of rice husk biochar on selected soil properties and nitrate leaching in loamy sand and clay soil. International Soil and Water Conservation Research. 7, 258-265.
    3. Glaser, B., Wiedner, K., Seelig, S., Schmidt, H., and Gerber, H. (2015). Biochar organic fertilizers from natural resources as substitute for mineral fertilizers. Agronmy for Sustainable Development 35, 667–678.
    4. Hassanzadeh, E., Mazaheri, D., Chaichi, M. R., and Khavazi, K. (2007). Efficiency of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria and phosphorus chemical fertilizer on yield and yield components of barley cultivar (Karoon Dar Kavir). Pajouhesh and Sazandegi. 77, 111-118. (In Persian).
    5. Hirzel, J., Pedreros, A., and Cordero K. (2011). Effect of nitrogen rates and split nitrogen fertilization on grain yield and its components in flooded rice. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research. 71(3), 437-444.
    6. Huang, M., Fan, L., Chen, J., Jiang, L., and Zou, Y. (2018). Continuous applications of biochar to rice: Effects on nitrogen uptake and utilization. Scientific Reports. 8(1), 11461.
    7. Huang, M., Fan, L., Jiang, L. G., Yang, S. Y., Zou, Y. B., and Norman, U. (2019). Continuous applications of biochar to rice: Effects on grain yield and yield attributes. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 3, 563–570.
    8. Huang, M., Fan, L., Jiang, L., Yang, S., Zou, Y., and Uphoff, N. (2019). Continuous applications of biochar to rice: Effects on grain yield and yield attributes. Journal of Integrative Agiculture, 18(3), 563–570.

     Iqbal, T., Ortaş, I., ‏Isik, A., and Islam, M. (2019). Rice straw biochar amended soil improves wheat productivity and accumulated phosphorus in grain, Journal of Plant Nutrition. 42, 1605-1623.

     Islam, S.M.M., Gaihre, Y. K., Shah, A.L., Singh, U., Sarkar, M.I.U.,  Satter, M. A., Sanabria, J., and Biswas, J.C. (2016). Rice yields and nitrogen use efficiency with different fertilizers and water management under intensive lowland rice cropping systems in Bangladesh. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 106,143-156.

     Jackson, M.L. (1973). Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice Hall Grice, Englewood Cliffs. https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.19590 850311.

     Jafari, H., Dastan, S., Moshtaghian, M. R., Mohammadi, B., and Valaei, L. (2013). Effects of weeds control and nitrogen application on weeds and rice characteristics in Iranian paddy field. Electronic Journal of Biology. 9(4) :77–83.

     Jahan, A., Islam, A., Sarkar, M.D.I.U., Iqbal, M., Ahmed, M.D.N., and Islam, M.D.R. (2020). Nitrogen response of two high yielding rice varieties as influenced by nitrogen levels and growing seasons. Geology, Ecology, and Landscapes.1-8.

    1. Jeffery, S., Verheijen, F., van der Velde, M., and Bastos, A. (2011). A quantitative review of the effects of biochar application to soils on crop productivity using meta-analysis. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 144(1), 175-187.
    2. Jemal, K., and Abebe, A. (2016). Determination of bio-char rate for improved production of Lemmon grass. International Journal of Advanced Biological and Biomedical Research 4 (2), 149-157.
    3. Karhu, K., Mattila T., Bergstrom, I., and Regina, K. (2011). Biochar addition to agricultural soil increased CH4uptake and water holding capacity–results from a short-term pilot field study. AgricEcosyst Environ. 140, 309–313.
    4. Kheyri, N., Niknejad, Y., and Abbasalipour, M. (2018). The effects of using organic and biological fertilizer along with lower rate of chemical nitrogen fertilizer on quality and quantity of rice yield. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 12(3), 445-460. (In Persian).
    5. Lai, L., Ismail, M. R., Muharam, F. M., Yusof, M. M., Ismail, R., and Jaafar, N. M. (2017). Effect of rice straw biochar and nitrogen fertilizer on rice growth and yield. Asian Journal of Crop Science. 9(4), 159-166.
    6. Lehmann, J. (2007). A handful of carbon. Nature. 447, 143–144.
    7. Lehmann, J., Silva, J.P.D., Steiner, C., Nehls, T., Zech, W., and Glaser, B. (2003). Nutrient availability and leaching in an archaeological anthrosol and a ferralsol of the Central Amazon Basin: Fertiliser, manure and charcoal amendments. Plant and Soil. 249, 343–357.
    8. Mavi, M. S., Singh, G., Singh, B. P., Sekhon, B. S., Choudhary, O. P., Sagi, S., and BERRY, R. (2018). Interactive effects of rice-residue biochar and N-fertilizer on soil functions and crop biomass in contrasting soils. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 18(1), 41-59.
    9. Mohammadian, M., Astaraie, A., Lakzian, A., Emami, H., and Kavousi, M. (2019). Effect of nitrogen supplying sources on nitrogen use efficiency in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Shiroudi). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences. 21(1), 82-95. (In Persian).
    10. Moslehi, N., Niknejad, Y., Fallah Amoli, H., and Kheyri, N. (2016). Effect of integrated application of chemical, organic and biological fertilizers on some of the morphophysiological traits of rice (Oryza sativa L.) Tarom Hashemi cultivar. Crop Physiology Journal. 8(30), 87-103.
    11. Oladele, S., Adeyemo, A., Awodun, M., Ajayi, A., and Fasina, A. (2019). Effects of biochar and nitrogen fertilizer on soil physicochemical properties, nitrogen use efficiency and upland rice (Oryza sativa) yield grown on an Alfisol in Southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture. 8, 295-308.
    12. Oladele, S., Adeyemo, A., and Awodun, M. (2019). Influence of rice husk biochar and inorganic fertilizer on soil nutrients availability and rain-fed rice yield in two contrasting soils. Geoderma, 336, 1-11.
    13. Pirasteh Anosheh, H., Emam, Y., and Jamali Ramin, F. (2010). Comparative effect of biofertilizerwith chemical fertilizers on sunflower(Helianthus annuus L.) growth, yield and oil percentage in different drought stress levels. Agroecology, 2(3), 492-501. (in Persian)
    14. Pramanik, K., and Bera, A. K. (2013). Effect of seedling age and nitrogen fertilizer on growth, chlorophyll content, yield and economics of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. 4(8), 3489-3499.
    15. Razavipour, T., Khaledian, M., and Rezaei, M. (2018). Effects of nitrogen levels and its splitting on rice yield and nutrient uptake in rice, Hashemi variety. Human and Environment. 16(2), 153-164.
    16. Saha, A., Sarkar, R. K., and Yamagishi, Y. (1998). Effect of time of nitrogen application on spikelet differentiation and degeneration of rice. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica. 39, 119-123.
    17. Schulz, H., Dunst, G., and Glaser, B. (2014). No effect level of co-composted biochar on plant growth and soil properties in a greenhouse experiment. Agronomy, 4, 34-51.
    18. Shackley, S., and Sohi. (2010). Benefits and Issues Associated with the Application of Biochar to Soil. Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, UK Government, London.
    19. Singh, B. P., Hatton, B. J., Singh, B., Cowie A. L., and Kathuria, A. (2010). Influence of biochars on nitrous oxide emission and nitrogen leaching from two contrasting soils. J Environ Qual. 39, 1224–1235.
    20. Sohi, S. P., Krull, E., Lopez-Capel, E., and Bol, R. (2010). A review of biochar and its use and function in soil. Advances in Agronomy 105, 47-82
    21. Timothy, W., and E. Joe. (2003). Rice fertilization Mississippi. Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station. 1341, 1-4.
    22. Turan, M., Ataoglu, N., and Sahin, F. (2006). Evaluation of the capacity of phosphate solubilizing bacteria and fungi on different forms of phosphorus in liquid culture. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 28, 99-108.
    23. Wang, J., Xiong, Z., and Kuzyakov, Y. (2016). Biochar stability in soil: Meta-analysis of decomposition and priming effects. GCB Bioenergy. 8 (3), 512–23.
    24. Waqas, A. Mubshar, Noman, M., Nawazc, A., Sami, U., Muhammad, S., and Zeshan, H. (2020). Synergetic use of biochar and synthetic nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers to improves maize productivity and nutrient retention in loamy soil. Journal of plant nutrition. 43, 1356-1368.
    25. Wei, H. Y., Zhu, Y., Qiu, S., Han, C., Hu, L., Xu, D., Zhou, N. B., Xing, Z. P., Hu, Y.J., Cui, P. Y., Dai, Q. G., and Zhang, H. C. (2018). Combined effect of shading time and nitrogen level on grain filling and grain quality in japonica super rice. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 17(11), 2405-2417.
    26. Xiaohong, Y., Jiana, C., Fangbo, C., Zui, T., and Huang, M. (2020). Short-term application of biochar improves post-heading crop growth but reduces pre-heading biomass translocation in rice, Plant Production Science, 23(4), 522-528.
    27. Xu, H., Zhong, G. J., Lin, Y., Ding, G., Li, S., Wang, Z., Liu, S., Tang. and Ding, C. (2015). Effect of nitrogen management during the panicle stage in rice on the nitrogen utilization of rice and succeeding wheat crops. European Journal of Agronomy. 70, 41-47.
    28. Yao. Q., Liu, J., Yu, Z., Li, Y., Jin, J., Liu, X., and Wang, G. (2017). Changes of bacterial community compositions after 3 years of biochar application in a black soil of northeast China. Applied Soil Ecology. 113, 11–21.