پیامد کاربرد بیوچار اصلاح شده با گوگرد بر برخی ویژگی‌های بیوشیمیایی و میکروبیولوژیکی خاک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 استاد، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

3 استاد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

کاربرد بیوچار در خاک می­تواند در بهبود کربن آلی و کیفیت خاک مؤثر باشد. هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تأثیر بیوچار و بیوچار اصلاح شده با گوگرد (تهیه شده از باگاس نیشکر و بقایای ذرت) بر تغییرات کربن آلی و ویژگی­های بیوشیمیایی و میکروبیولوژیکی یک خاک آهکی تحت کشت ذرت بود. این پژوهش در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با پنج تیمار و در چهار تکرار انجام شد. بیوچارهای بقایای ذرت و باگاس نیشکر و بیوچارهای اصلاح شده آن­ها، در سطح یک درصد وزنی با نمونه خاک ترکیب شده و کشت گیاه ذرت در گلدان­های  پنج کیلوگرمی انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد کاربرد بیوچار و بیوچار اصلاح شده با گوگرد سبب افزایش معنی­دار کربن آلی کل (4/115- 7/56 درصد) و محلول (9/60- 3/24 درصد) خاک، تنفس میکروبی  (7/114- 0/108 درصد)، تنفس برانگیخته با سوبسترا (9/98- 5/44 درصد)، کربن زیست­توده میکروبی (4/93 – 8/54 درصد)، فعالیت دهیدروژناز (7/114- 0/108 درصد) و کاتالاز (6/151- 4/105 درصد) شد. مقایسه میان دو زیست­توده نشان داد بیوچار بقایای ذرت در مقایسه با بیوچار باگاس نیشکر در بهبود کربن آلی کل و محلول خاک و ویژگی­های بیوشیمیایی خاک، مؤثرتر بود. اثر مثبت بیوچارهای اصلاح شده با گوگرد بر کربن آلی محلول، کربن زیست­توده میکروبی و فعالیت کاتالاز، به­طور معنی­داری بیش­تر از بیوچارهای اولیه بود. بیش­ترین مقدار کربن آلی محلول، تنفس میکروبی پایه و تنفس ناشی از سوبسترا و همچنین فعالیت دهیدروژناز و کاتالاز مربوط به تیمار بیوچار بقایای ذرت اصلاح شده بود. به­طور کلی نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد بیوچارهای تهیه شده از بقایای ذرت و باگاس نیشکر می­توانند اصلاح کننده آلی مناسبی برای بهبود ماده آلی خاک و ویژگی­های بیوشیمیایی خاک­ باشند. افزون بر این، اصلاح بیوچار با گوگرد و تهیه بیوچار اسیدی می­تواند کارایی آن در بهبود بیوشیمیایی و میکروبیولوژیکی خاک را افزایش دهد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Impact of Application of Sulfur Modified Biochar on Some Biochemical and Microbiological Attributes of Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Akbar Karimi 1
  • Abdolamir Moezzi 2
  • Mostafa Chorom 3
  • Naeimeh Enayatizamir 4
1 Deparment of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Soil Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
3 Deparment of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
4 Department of Soil Science , Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Biochar application to soil improve organic carbon and soil quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biochar and sulfur modified biochar (prepared from sugarcane bagasse and corn residue) on changes in organic carbon and biochemical and microbiological characteristics of a calcareous soil under corn cultivation. This study was conducted in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications. Corn residue and sugarcane bagasse biochar and their modified biochar were mixed at 1% (w/w) with the soil sample, and corn was grown in 5 kg pots. The results indicated that the application of biochar and biochar modified with sulfur caused a significant increase in total (56.7-115.4%) and dissolved organic carbon (24.3-60.9%) of the soil, microbial basal respiration (43.8-85.8%), substrate-induced respiration (44.5-98.9%), microbial biomass carbon (54.8-93.4%), dehydrogenase (108.0-114.7) and catalase (105.4-151.6%) activity. Comparison between the two feedstock has revealed that corn residue biochar was more effective in improving total and dissolved organic carbon and soil biochemical attributes than sugarcane bagasse biochar. The positive impact of sulfur-modified biochar on dissolved organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon and catalase activity was significantly greater than the raw biochar. The greatest value of dissolved organic carbon, microbial basal respiration, and substrate induced respiration as well as dehydrogenase, and catalase activity, were related to the biochar treatment of modified corn residue. In general, the results of this study demonstrated that biochar derived from corn residue and sugarcane bagasse could be a suitable organic amendment to improve soil organic matter and soil biochemical properties. In addition, modification of biochar with sulfur and production of acidic biochar can increase its efficiency in improving soil microbial activity.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Enzyme activity
  • Feedstock
  • organic matter
  • soil microorganisms
  • Soil quality
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