Amini, A.S., & Iqbalaadeh, A. (2012). Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Candle Group Arrangement on Depth of Scour at Bridge Stands. Iranian Journal of Water Research. Vol. 6, No. 11, pp. 95 to 103 (In Farai).
Bahrami, N., & Ghomeshi, M. (2018). The effect of lattice crown on the maximum depth of local cascading of the bridge cube group. Amirkabir Civil Engineering Journal, 2018, pp. 655 to 664(In Farai).
Basirat, S., Sanei, M., & Saghravani, F.(2009). Reducing the Scouring of Bridge support using the protective eppi.The 8th International Conference on Civil Engineering. Shiraz University, May 2009. (In Farai).
Chiew, Y. M., & lim F. H., (2000). Failure behavior of riprap layer at bridge piers under live-bed conditions. Hyd. Eng. ASCE. 1:43-55.
Dabardani, A., Sanei, M., & B, Sh.The victim. (2010). Investigation of the effect of applying two gate submerged plates of different lengths in reducing local scour of bridge base using time chart.Ninth Hydraulic Conference. Tarbiat Modarres University. (In Farai).
Daneshfaraz, R., Aminvash, E., Esmaeli, R., Sadeghfam, S., Abraham, J. (2020). Experimental and numerical investigation of energy dissipation of supercritical flow in sudden contractions. Jouranl of grounwater science and engineering. 8(4): 396-406.
Johnson, P.A., Hey, R. D., Tessier, M., & Rosgen, D. L. (2001). Use of vanes for control of scour at vertical wall abutments. J. Hydr. Eng. ASCE. 127(9):772-778.
Hosseinzadeh dalir, A., Forsadizadeh, D., & Shojaee, P. (2011). The Effect of Submerged Plates and Loops on Reduction of Depth Depth of Cylindrical Bridges Shape.Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. Fifteenth Year, No. 57, Autumn 90, (In Farai).
Hosseini, H., Hosseinzadeh Dalir, A., Farsadizadeh, d., Arawaghi, H., & Ghorbani, M. (2011). Application of submerged plates in scour control around rectangular bridge base with rounded nose. Journal of Civil Engineering and Surveying, No. 45, Volume 45, September 2011, Tabriz University (In Farai).
Ghorbani, B., & kells, J.A. (2008). Effect of submerged vanes on the scour occurring at a cylindrical pier. J. Hydr. Res. (1):1-10 -1269.
Ghomeshi, M., & Jalili, A. (2016). Influence of Netted collar on scour depth around of cubic bridge pier. Abiari Science and Engineering Journal. Thirty-ninth year. No. 2
Grimaldi, C. R., Gaudio, F., Calomino, & H. Cardoso. (2009). Control of scour at bridge piers by a downstream sill. J. Hydraul.Eng., ASCE. 1:13-21.
Lauchlan, C. S. (1999). Pier Scour countermeasures. Ph. D thesis, University of Auckland, New Zealand.pp. 299-316. Ghorbani, B. and Kells, J. A. 2008. Effect of submerged vanes on the scour occuring at a cylindrical pier. Hyd. Res. 5: 610-619.
Nazariha, M. (1996). Design relationships for maximum local scour depth for bridge pier groups. PhD. Thesis, University of Ottawa, Canada.
Odgaard, J., & Wang. (1991). Sediment management with submerged vanes. I: Theory. J. of hydraulic Eng. 117(3): 267-283
Saadatnya, M. Khodasshenas, S. Esmaeili, K. (2010). Experimental analysis of gutter performance on reducing depth and volume of scour around bridge nose. Fifth National Congress of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. 14 to 16 May.
Behbahan, T. (2006). Laboratory investigation of submerged vane shapes effect on river banks protection. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(12), 1402-1407.
Shahsavari, H., Moradi, S., Khodashenas, S. (2019). Influence of Semicircular Collar Diameter and Its Alignment on Scour Depth and Flow Pattern around Bridge Abutment, Iranian journal of soil and water research, 55(1): 77-91.
Tafarojnoruz, A., Gaudio, R., Dey, S, (2010). flow-altering countermeasures against scour at bridge piersa review” Journal,of Hydraulic Research V.48.4Septemer 2014.
Zarrati, A. R, H., Gholami & Azizi, M. (2004). Application of collar to control scouring around rectangular bridge piers. J. Hydraul. Res. 42(1):97-103.