بررسی اثر کاربرد اسید هیومیک بر کارایی گیاه‌پالایی کادمیم توسط گیاه همیشه بهار در یک خاک‌ آهکی آلوده به کادمیم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 پژوهشکده فناوری تولیدات گیاهی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، ایران

2 پژوهشگاه علوم و تکنولوژی پیشرفته و علوم محیطی، دانشگاه تحصیلات تکمیلی صنعتی و فناوری پیشرفته، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

کارایی پایین فرایند گیاه‌پالایی برخی عناصر سنگین در خاک‌های آهکی، به دلیل تحرک پایین این عناصر، سبب شده است که تحقیقات در خصوص استفاده از عوامل کلات کننده و محرک‌های زیستی بر افزایش کارایی این فرایند، رشد چشمگیری داشته باشد. در مطالعه حاضر، پتانسیل گیاه­پالایی کادمیم توسط گیاه همیشه بهار (Calendula officinalis) متاثر از کاربرد اسید هیومیک به صورت محلول پاشی و خاکی، در یک خاک آهکی آلوده به سطوح مختلف کادمیم مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بدین منظور در آزمایشی گلخانه‌ای، نشاهای همیشه بهار به خاک‌های آلوده به کادمیم (0، 50 و100  میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم) منتقل و سپس به طور جداگانه با کاربرد خاکی یا محلول پاشی اسید هیومیک در سطوح مختلف (0، 10و 20 میکرومولار) تیمار شدند. تیمارهای اسید هیومیک دو هفته پس از انتقال گیاه اعمال و در نهایت ویژگی‌های مختلف بیوشیمیایی-فیزیولوژیکی اندازه‌گیری شد. بر اساس نتایج، در خاک‌های دارای آلودگی، علی رغم رشد ظاهرا طبیعی گیاهان بدون هیچگونه علائم سمیت (کلروز یا نکروز شدن)، با افزایش سطح کادمیم، زیست توده وزن خشک گیاه کاهش و فعالیت آنزیم های آنتی اکسیدانی (کاتالاز، پراکسیداز، سوپر اکسید دسموتاز و آسکوربات پراکسیداز) افزایش یافت. کاربرد خاکی اسید هیومیک در خاک‌های دارای آلودگی باعث افزایش زیست توده وزن خشک، غلظت کادمیم و فاکتور غلظت بیولوژیکی کادمیم شد. همچنین، کاربرد اسید هیومیک، سبب کاهش فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی اکسیدانی گیاهان شد، که نشان از تعدیل تنش کادمیم در گیاهان تیمار شده داشت. بر اساس نتایج، با توجه به بالا بودن مقادیر بالاتر از "یک" فاکتور انتقال و فاکتور غلظت بیولوژیکی، همیشه بهار به عنوان یک گیاه بیش انباشتگر کادمیم محسوب شده، که می‌تواند کادمیم را از طریق سازوکار گیاه استخراجی پالایش کند. به طور کلی، از بین تیمارهای مورد بررسی، استفاده از تیمار 20 میکرومولار (به ویژه کاربرد خاکی) اسید هیومیک، بهترین تأثیر را در افزایش فرایند گیاه­پالایی کادمیم در خاک آهکی مورد مطالعه داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Humic Acid Application Effect on Cadmium Phytoremediation Efficiency by Calendula officinalis L. in a Cadmium-Contaminated Calcareous Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Vahid Reza Saffari 1
  • Mahboub Saffari 2
1 Research and Technology Institute of Plant Production, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran
2 Environment Department, Institute of Science and High Technology and Environmental Sciences, GraduateUniversity of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Low efficiency of phytoremediation process of some heavy metals in calcareous soils, due to low mobility of these elements, has led to a significant growth in research on the use of chelating agents and biostimulants to improve the efficiency of this process. In present study, the efficiency of cadmium (Cd) phytoremediation of Calendula officinalis L. was investigated in a Cd-spiked calcareous soil as affected by foliar and soil application of humic acid. For this purpose, in a greenhouse experiment, seedlings of C. officinalis were transferred to Cd-spiked soils (0, 50 and 100 mg kg-1) and treated separately by soil (soil drench) and foliar (spraying plant leaves) application of humic acid at different levels (0, 10, 20 M). The humic acid treatments were applied two weeks after transferring plant and eventually the various biochemical-physiological traits and phytoremediation indices of Cd in C. officinalis were measured at specific times. According to the results, in Cd-spiked soils, the C. officinalis had apparently a normal growth without any toxicity signs (chlorosis and necrosis symptoms), however with increasing the Cd levels, the dry weight biomass decreased and antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase) increased. Both foliar and soil humic acid application in Cd-spiked soils increased dry weight biomass, Cd concentration, and bioconcentration factor (BCF). Furthermore, the application of this organic substance, obviously moderated the Cd stress since the antioxidant enzymes activities reduced compared to the control. Based on the results, the obtained translocation factor (TF) and BCF values of Cd, which were >1, indicated that this plant is a Cd-hyperaccumulator, which could extract Cd via phytoextraction mechanism. Generally, among the studied treatments, the application of 20 M (especially soil drench application) had the best effect on increasing Cd phytoremediation efficiency in the studied soil.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Calendula officinalis L.plant
  • Calcareous soil
  • Cadmium
  • Humic Acid
  • Phytoremediation
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