حذف آلاینده‌های نیترات، فسفات و شوری با استفاده از تالاب مصنوعی ترکیبی با گیاه نی در مقیاس پایلوت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

این مطالعه با هدف بررسی امکان استفاده از سامانه‌های تالاب‌مصنوعی در حذف آلاینده‌های نیترات، فسفات و شوری از زهاب کشاورزی انجام گرفته است. بدین منظور دو سامانه تالاب مصنوعی زیرسطحی با جریان عمودی و افقی در مقیاس پایلوت به صورت متوالی استفاده شد، که بستر آنها ابتدا توسط شن بادامی به ابعاد mm3-2، بعنوان ماده بستر به ارتفاع m1/0 پر شد، سپس اطراف محیط لوله زهکش به ارتفاع m2/0 از ترکیب شن و زئولیت کلینوپتیلولیت به نسبت 70 به 30 پر گردید. سامانه‌های مورد مطالعه با حضور و بدون حضور گیاه نی بررسی گردیدند و سپس با استفاده از زهاب کشاورزی حاوی آلاینده‌های نیترات، فسفات و شوری با غلظت‌های به ترتیب 80 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر، 10 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر و 12 دسی زیمنس بر متر، تاثیر انواع سامانه‌های تالاب و وجود گیاه بر بازده و راندمان حذف آلاینده‌ها مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که با ادامه روند عبور آلاینده ورودی از بستر سامانه‌ها، راندمان حذف آلاینده‌ها هم در تالاب با گیاه نی و هم فاقد گیاه کاهش می یابد. راندمان حذف آلاینده­ها به ترتیب در سامانه‌های ترکیبی افقی – عمودی، عمودی – افقی، تالاب با جریان زیر سطحی افقی و تالاب با جریان زیرسطحی عمودی با حضور گیاه نی برابر با 39/69 ، 81/65 ،  73/59 ، 94%/57 و در تالاب بدون گیاه نی برابر با  40/60، 16/57، 58/55، %91/53 محاسبه شد. در نهایت می­توان نتیجه گرفت که سیستم تالاب مصنوعی ترکیبی با جریان زیرسطحی افقی – عمودی و در حضور گیاه نی با کارائی یالاتر قادر به حذف قابل قبول آلاینده‌های نیترات، فسفات و شوری می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Nitrate, Phosphate, and Salt Removal from a Pilot-Scale Hybrid Constructed Wetland with Planted Phragmites Australis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Milad Hashemi 1
  • Abdali Naseri 1
  • Mona Golabi 2
  • Abdolrahim Hooshmand 1
1 Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Science Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Science Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of using Constructed Wetland (CW) systems in removing nitrate and phosphate pollutants and salts from agricultural runoff. For this purpose, two Subsurface-Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) were used in series; one with horizontal flow and another with vertical flow.  These wetlands were first filled with gravel (2-3 mm in size) as a bed material with a height of  0.1 m (according to EPA recommendations). The drain pipes were then covered with a 0.2 m layer of 70:30 gravel–zeolite-clinoptilolite mixture. The systems were studied with and without planted phragmites australis (common reed), and their performance were investigated in terms of pollutant removal efficiency using agricultural runoff containing 12 dS.m-1 salinity, 80 mg.L-1 nitrate and 10 mg.L-1 phosphate. It was found that as pollutants continue to pass through the beds, the removal efficiency is reduced in wetlands with and without planted reed. The final efficiencies of hybrid HF–VF CW, VF–HF CW, VSFCW, and HSFCW models were calculated to be 69.39, 65.81, 73.57, and 94.75% in the wetland with planted reeds and 60.40, 57.16, 55.58, and 53.91% in the wetland without planted reed, respectively. Finally, it is concluded that the hybrid HF–VF CW with the presence of reed plant and with higher efficiency offers an acceptable level of nitrate, phosphate, and salt removal.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Nitrate
  • Phosphate
  • salinity
  • constructed wetland
  • Clinoptilolite
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