اثر تنش خشکی و مصرف کودهای آلی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد سیب‌زمینی (مطالعه موردی استان اصفهان)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

عضو هیأت علمی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

به منظور بررسی تاثیر کودهای مختلف آلی بر عملکرد و برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیولوژیک سیب­زمینی در شرایط تنش خشکی، آزمایشی به صورت کرت­های یک بار خرد شده درقالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 1397 در منطقه براآن اصفهان اجرا شد. تیمارهای اعمال شده، شامل تنش خشکی بر اساس کسری از ظرفیت زراعی و یا تخلیه مجاز رطوبتی (45 درصد کاهش رطوبتی به عنوان شاهد، 55، 65 و 75 درصد کاهش رطوبتی درکرت­های اصلی) و تیمار کودهای آلی شامل ورمی‌کمپوست (7 تن در هکتار)، کمپوست زباله شهری (15 تن در هکتار)، کود دامی (50 تن در هکتار) و شاهد (بدون مصرف کود) در کرت­های فرعی، قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد تنش خشکی باعث کاهش عملکرد و اجزای آن و کاهش میزان کلروفیل برگ شد (01/0≥p). مقایسه میانگین­ها نشان داد که عملکرد سیب­زمینی در تیمار ورمی‌کمپوست و بدون تنش خشکی، به 33 تن در هکتار رسید. برهمکنش تیمار ورمی‌کمپوست و آبیاری پس از 65 درصد تخلیه ظرفیت زراعی (کاهش 20 درصد از آب مصرفی)، منجر به تولید کل سیب­زمینی (23 تن در هکتار) شد. در این شرایط تنش، تیمار کمپوست نیز موجب تولید سیب‌زمینی به میزان 21 تن در هکتار گردید. در برهمکنش ورمی‌کمپوست و آبیاری پس از 75 درصد تخلیه مجاز رطوبتی خاک (کاهش 30 درصد از آب مصرفی)، کلروفیل برگ به 12 میلی­گرم در گرم رسید که وضعیتی هم سطح با عدم کاربرد ورمی‌کمپوست در تیمار بدون تنش خشکی ایجاد شد. همچنین بیشترین میزان پرولین در برهمکنش تیمار تنش خشکی 65 درصد تخلیه مجاز رطوبتی  و تیمارهای کمپوست و ورمی کمپوست بترتیب با 2/21 و 24 میلی­گرم در گرم اندازه گیری شد. در مجموع، با کاربرد کودهای آلی می‌توان به کاهش اثرات منفی تنش خشکی، کمک کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Drought Stress and Consumption of Organic Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Potato (Case Study of Isfahan Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mojtaba Yahyaabadi
  • mohsen dehghani
Member of scientific board, Soil and water research division, Esfahan agricultural and natural resources research center, AREEO, Esfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of different organic fertilizers on yield and some physiological characteristics of potato under drought stress conditions, an experiment was conducted in the form of split plots, based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2018 at Baraan region in Isfahan. The applied treatments include drought stress based on the fraction of Allowable Water (AW) or Management allowed Deplition (MAD= 45% as a control, 55%, 65% and 75% in main plots) and organic fertilizers including vermicompost (7 ton ha-1), municipal waste compost (15 ton ha-1), cow manure (50 ton ha-1) and control (without fertilizer application) were in the sub-plots. Results showed that the drought stress reduced yield and its components and reduced leaf chlorophyll content (p≤0.01). Comparison of means showed that potato yield in vermicompost treatment without drought stress reached 33 tons per hectare. Intraction of vermicompost and irrigation after 65% depletion of AW (reduction of 20% in water consumption), led to the production of 23 tons per hectar potato. Under these stress conditions, compost treatment also resulted in potato production of 21 tons per hectar. The interaction of vermicompost and irrigation after 75% depletion of AW (30% reduction of water consumption), Leaf chlorophyll reached 12 mg/g, the same as situation at no application of vermicompost and drought stress. Also, the highest amount of proline was measured in the interaction of MAD=65% and compost and vermicompost treatments with 21.2 and 24 mg/g, respectively. In general, the application of organic fertilizers could help to reduce the negative effects of drought stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Deficit irrigation
  • vermicompost
  • compost
  • Cow manure
  • potato
Ahmad, P., Jamsheed, S., Hameed, A., Rasool, S., Sharma, I., Azooz, M. and Hasanuzzaman, M. (2014). Drought Stress Induced Oxidative Damage and Antioxidants in Plants. Elsevier, New York. (pp. 345-367).
Akha, A., Boutra, T. and Alhejely, A. (2011). The rates of photosynthesis, chlorophyll Content, dark respiration, proline and abscicic acid (ABA) in wheat (Triticum durum) under water deficit conditions, International. Journal of  Agriculture and Biology. 13(2), 215–221.
Alva, A. K., Ren, H. and Moore, A. D. (2012).Water and nitrogen management effects on biomass accumulation and partitioning in two potato cultivars. American Journal of Plant Sciences 3: 64-170.
Arancon, N., Edwards, C. A., Bierman, P. and Metzger, J. (2003). Effect of vermicompost on growth and marketable fruits of field grown tomatoes, peppers and strawberries. Pedobiologia. 47: 731–735.
Arancon, N., Edwards, C. Bierman, P., Welch, C. and Metzger, J. (2004a) Influences of vermicomposts on field  strawberries: 1. Effects on growth and yields. Bioresource technology. 93: 145-153.
Arancon, N.Q., Edwards, C.A., Atiyeh, R.M., and Metzger, J.D. (2004b). Effect of vermicomposts produced from food waste on the growth and yields of greenhouse peppers. Bioresource Technology. 93: 139-143.
Arancon, N.Q., Galvis P.A., and Edwards, A. (2005). Suppression of insect pest populations and damage to plants by vermicomposts. Bioresource Technology. 96(10): 1137-1142.
Asghari, S., Neyshabouri, M.R., Abbasi, F., Aliasgharzad, N., and Oustan, S. (2009). The effects of four organic soil conditioners on aggregate stability, pore size distribution, and respiration activity in a sandy loam soil. Turkish Journal of  Agriculture and  Forestry. 33(1):47–55.
Ashraf, M., Akram, N., Arteca, R. and Foolad, M. (2010) The physiological, biochemical and molecular roles of brassinosteroids and salicylic acid in plant processes and salt tolerance. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences. 29: 162-190.
Atiyeh, R., Edwards, C., Subler, S. and Metzger, J. (2000) Pig manure vermicompost as a component of a horticultural bedding plant medium: effects on physicochemical properties and plant growth. Bioresource technology. 78: 11-20.
Azizi, M., rezwanee, F., Hassanzadeh Khayat, M., Lakzian, A., and Neamati, H. (2008). The effect of different levels of vermicompost and irrigation on morphological properties and essential oil content of German chamomile (Matricaria recutita variety Goral). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 24(1): 82-93. (In Persian)
Bachman, G.R. and Metzger, J. (2007). Physical and chemical characteristics of a commercial potting substrate amended with vermicompost produced from two different manure sources. Horticulture Technology. 17: 336-340.
Banziger, M., Edmeades, G.O., Beck, D. and Bellon, M., (2000). Breeding for drought and nitrogen stress tolerance in maize, from theory to practice. CIMMYT, Mexico DF. Bates, L. Waldren, R. and Teare, I. (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and soil .39: 205-207.
Beltrano, J. and Ronco, MG. (2008). Improved tolerance of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L.) to drought stress and rewatering by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus claroideum: Effect on growth and cell membrane stability. Brazilian Journal of  Plant Physiology. 20: 29–37.
Bowden, C., Evanylo, G.K., Zhang, X., Ervin, .E.H., Seiler, J.R. (2010). Soil carbon and physiological responses of corn and soybean to organic amendments. Compost Science and Utilization. 18:162-173.
Campitelli, P., and Ceppi, S. (2008). Chemical, physical and biological compost and vermicompost characterization: a chemometric study. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems. 90 (1):64–71.
Chanda, G.K., Bhunia, G. and Chakraborty, S.K. (2011). The effect of vermicompost and other fertilizerson cultivation of tomato plants. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry. 3(2): 42-45.
Chen, Y., Denobili, M. and Aviad, M. (2004). Stimulatory effects of humic substances on plant growth. Soil Organic Matter in Sustainable Agriculture. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. ( pp: 103-129).
Chinsamy, M. Kulkarni, M. G. and Van Staden, J. (2013). Garden-waste-vermicompost leachate alleviates salinity stress in tomato seedlings by mobilizing salt tolerance mechanisms. Plant Growth Regulation. 71: 41-47.
Demelash, N. (2013). Deficit irrigation scheduling for potato production in North Gondar, Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 8 (11): 1144-1154.
Ebrahimi pak, N. (2011). The effect of Deficit irrigation on the quantity and quality of potato crop in Shahrekord. Soil and water research institute,  Karaj, Iran. Final report No. 1695. 56 p.
Edmeades, G.O., Banziger, M., Mickelson, H.R. and Pena-Valdivia, C.B. (1996). Developing drought and low N tolerant maize. P. 1-558. Proceedings of a symposium sustainable maize and wheat systems for the poor, 25-29 March 1996. CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico.
Eghball, B., Ginting, D. and Gilley, J.E. (2004). Residual effects of manure and compost applications on corn production and soil properties. Agronomy Journal. 96: 442-7.
Fayez, K. A. and Bazaid, S. A. (2014). Improving drought and salinity tolerance in barley by application of salicylic acid and potassium nitrate. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences. 13: 45-55.
Fedina, I., Georgieva, K. and Grigorova, I. (2002). Light-dark changes in proline content of barley leaves under salt stress. Biologia plantarum. 45: 59-63.
Ferreras, L., Gomez, E., Toresani, S., Firpo, I., and Rotondo,  R.  (2006). Effect of organic   amendments   on   some   physical   and   biological   properties   in   a horticultural soil. Bioresource Technology. 97, 63-640.
Franco, J., Martínez-Sánchez, J. Fernández, J. and Bañón, S. (2006). Selection and nursery production of ornamental plants for landscaping and xerogardening in semi-arid environments. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 81: 3-17.
Garcia, A. C. Santos, L. A. Izquierdo, F. G. Rumjanek, V. M. Castro, dos Santos, F. S. de Souza, L. G. A. and Berbara, R. L. L. (2014). Potentialities of vermicompost humic acids to alleviate water stress in rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Geochemical Exploration. 136: 48-54.
García, A. C., Santos, L. A., Izquierdo, F. G., Sperandio, M. V. L., Castro, R. N. and Berbara, R. L. L. (2012). Vermicompost humic acids as an ecological pathway to protect rice plant against oxidative stress. Ecological Engineering. 47: 203-208.
Ghaffari, H., Tadayon, M.R. and Nadeem, M. (2019). Proline-mediated changes in antioxidant enzymatic activities and the physiology of sugar beet under drought stress. Acta Physiologia Plantarum. 23:119-128.
Hidalgo, P.R., Matta, F.B., Harkess, R.L. (2006). Physical and chemical properties of substrates containing earthworm castings and effects on marigold growth. HortScience. 41:1474–1476.
Jat, R.S. and Ahlawat, I.P.S. (2008). Direct and residual effect of vermicompost, biofertilizers and phosphorus on soil nutrient dynamics and productivity of chickpea maize sequence. Journal of Sustainale Agriculture. 28(1): 41-54.
Joshi, R., Singh, J., and Vig, A. P. (2015). Vermicompost as an effective organic fertilizer and biocontrol agent: effect on growth, yield and quality of plants. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology. 14(1), 137-159.
Kalfountzos, D., Alexiou, I., Kotsopoulos, S., Zavakos, G. and Vyrlas, P. (2007). Effect of subsurface drip irrigation on cotton plantations. Water Resource Management. 21: 1341–1351.
King, B. A. and Stark, G. C. (1997). Potato irrigation management. University of Idaho Cooperative Extension System. bulletin No. 789, 16p.
Kumar, G.A., Bishwas, R., Mahendra, P.S., Vibha, U. and Chandan, K.S. (2011). Effect of fertilizers and vermicompost on growth, yield and biochemical changes in abelmoschus esculentus, Plant Archives. 11(1): 285-287.
Lei, Y., Yin, C. and Li, C. (2006) Differences in some morphological, physiological and biochemical responses to drought stress in two contrasting populations of Populus przewalskii. Physiologia Plantarum. 127: 182-191.
Lichtenthaler, H. K. (1987). Chlorophyll and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. PP. 350-382. In: R. Douce L.Packer (eds). Methods in Enzymology. Academic Press Ins, New York.
Lim, S.L. and Wu, T.Y. (2015). Determination of maturity in the vermicompost produced from palm oil mill effluent using spectroscopy, structural characterization and thermogravimetric analysis. Ecological Engineering. 84:515–519.
Mafakheri, A., Siosemardeh, A., Bahramnejad, B., Struik, C. and Sohrabi, E. (2010). Effect of drought stress on yield, proline and chlorophyll contents in three chickpea cultivars. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 4(8):580-585.
Malakouti, M. J. and Balali, M. R. (2004). Balanced fertilization towards sustainable crop production. Soil and water research institute. Tehran. 575p.
Marinari, S., Masciandaro, G., Ceccanti, B. and Grego, S. (2000). Influence of organic and mineral fertilizers on soil biological and physical properties. Bioresource Technology. 72:9–17.
Mcginnis, M., Cooke, A., Bilderback, T., and Lorscheider, M. (2003). Organic fertilizers for basil transplant production. Acta Horticulturea. 491: 213- 218.
Miller, G., Suzuki, N., Ciftci‐Yilmaz, S. and Mittler, R. (2010). Reactive oxygen species homeostasis and signalling during drought and salinity stresses. Plant, cell and environment. 33: 453-467.
Mirakalaei, S. Ardebill, Z. and Mostafavi, M. (2013). The effects of different organic fertilizers on the growth of lilies (Lillium longiflorum). International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences. 4: 181-186.
Mouavi, S. Z., Gholami, M. and Baninasab, B. (2018). Effect of vermicompost fertilizer on growth and drought tolerance of olive (Olea europaea). Journal of Plant Process and Function. 7(23). 1-19.
Nardi, S., Pizzeghello, D., Muscolo, A. and Vianello, A. (2002). Physiological effects of humic  substances on higher plants. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 34:1527-1536.
Nikolaeva, M.K., Maevskaya, S.N., Shugaev, A.G. and Bukhov, N.G. (2010). Effect of drought on chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activities in leaves of three wheat cultivars varying in productivity. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology. 57: 87–95.
Ostos, J.C., Lopez-Garrido, R., Murillo, J.M. and Lopez, R. (2008). Substitution of peat for municipal solid  waste and sewage sludge-based composts in nursery growing media: Effects on growth and nutrition of the native shrub Pistacia lentiscus L. Bioresource Technology. 99. 1793–1800.
Paknejad, F., Nasri, M., Tohidi, H., and Moghadam, H.R.(2007). Effects of drought stress on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, chlorophyll content and grain yield of wheat cultivars. Journal of Biological Science. 7(6): 841-847.
Rahbarian, P., Afsharmanesh, G. and Shirzadic, M.H. (2010). Effects of drought stress and manure on relative water content and cell membrane stability in dragonhead (Dracocephalum moldavica L.). Plant Ecophysiology. 2: 13-19.
Ramegowda, V., Basu, S., Krishnan, A. and Pereira, A. (2014). Rice growth under drought kinase is required for drought tolerance and grain yield under normal and drought stress conditions. Plant Physiology. 166:1634-1645.
Rashtbari, M. Alikhani, H. and Ghorchiani, M. (2012). Effect of vermicompost and municipal solid waste compost on growth and yield of canola under drought stress. International Journal of Agriculture: Research and Review. 2: 395-402.
Reddy, R., Redby, M., Reddy, N. S. & Anjnappa, M. (1998). Effect of organic and inorganic sources of NPK on growth and yield of pea (Pisum sativum). Legume Resources. 21: 57–60.
Rezadoost, S., Roshdi, M. and Hajihasani, M. (2009). The effect of  deficit irrigation on grain and oil yield of rapeseed cultivars in Khoy region. Journal of research in crop sciences. 2(6), 1-11. (In Farsi)
Razavinasab, A., Fotovat, R., Astaraie, A. and Tajabadipour, A. (2015). The biennial effect of humic acid application methods on growth and chemical composition of pistachio seedlings in field conditions. In: Proceedings of 14th Iranian soil science congress, 6-8 Sep. Rafsanjan University, Iran.
Sabry, S. R. S., Smith, L. T. and Smith, G.M. (1995). Osmoregulation in spring wheat under drought and salinity stress. Journal. of Genetics and Breeding. 49(1): 55–60.
Shao, H. B., Chu, L. Y., Jaleel, C. A. and Zhao, C. X. (2008). Water-deficit stress-induced anatomical changes in higher plants. Comptes rendus biologies. 331: 215-225.
Shock, C.C., Feibert, E.B.G. and Saunders, L.D. (1998). Potato yield and quality response to deficit irrigation. Horticultural Science. 33 (4): 655–659.
Tartoura, A.H. (2010). Alleviation of oxidative-stress induced by drought through application of compost in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants. American-Eurasian Journal of. Agriculture and Environment Science. 9(2): 208-216.
Uma, B. and Malathi, M. (2009). Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth and yield of Amaranthus species. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 5: 1054-1060.
Wang, W.X., Vinocur, B., Shoseyov, O. and Altman, A. (2001). Biotechnology of  plant osmotic stress tolerance: physiological and molecular considerations. Acta Horticulturae. 560:285-292.
Wang, Y. Ma, F. Li, M. Liang, D. and Zou, J. (2011). Physiological responses of kiwifruit plants to exogenous ABA under drought conditions. Plant Growth Regulation. 64: 63-74.
Yactayo, W., Ramírez, D.A., Gutiérrez, R., Mares, V., Posadas, A. and Quiroz, R. (2013). Effect of partial root-zone drying irrigation timing on potato tuber yield and water use efficiency. Agriculture Water Management. 123, 65–70.