شواهد میکرومورفولوژیکی هوازدگی بازالت و شیشه آتشفشان در خاک‌های مناطق نیمه‌خشک البرز میانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک-دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی- پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران-کرج-ایران

2 استاد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک-دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی- پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران-کرج-ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک-دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی- پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران-کرج-ایران

چکیده

با توجه به اینکه بخش عمده­ای از ایران را مناطق خشک و نیمه­خشک فرا گرفته است، چگونگی تشکیل عوارض خاک­ساخت موجود در خاک در فهم بهتر مباحث علوم خاک در این مناطق بسیار مهم و تاثیرگذار است. مواد مادری یکی از عوامل اصلی کنترل‌کننده خصوصیات خاک در مناطق خشک و نیمه­خشک است. بازالت و شیشه­ آتشفشانی از جمله سنگ­های آذرین حاوی کانی­های حساس به هوازدگی هستند. محصولات هوازدگی آنها به صورت کانی­های ثانویه و کاتیون­های مختلف در خاک انباشته می­شوند و مصرف این محصولات طی فرآیندهای مختلف به تشدید هوازدگی و تشکیل و تکامل خاک خواهد انجامید. در این تحقیق ویژگی­های مورفولوژی و فیزیکوشیمایی خاک­های تشکیل شده بر روی سنگ مادر بازالت در هشت خاکرخ در منطقه نیمه­خشک البرز میانی مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت و سپس خصوصیات میکرومورفولوژیکی در شش مقطع نازک مطالعه شد. مشاهدات میکرومورفولوژی شواهد مختلفی از وقوع فرآیند­­های هوازدگی را نشان داد. تشکیل پوشش‌های زیرسطحی و گرهک‌های اکسید آهن و منگنز، ساختمان میکروسکوپی مکعبی و تحول آن در خاکرخ­های مختلف از مکعبی نیمه­زاویه­دار به مکعبی زاویه­دار، پوشش‌های رسی لایه لایه که نشان از رسوب دوره­ای این لایه­ها در شرایط مساعد داشت، و تشکیل انواع عوارض خاک­ساخت کربناتی مانند گرهک‌ها، پوشش‌ها و پوشش‌های زیرسطحی، پرشدگی حفرات با کریستال­های میکریتی و اسپاریتی همگی حاکی از وجود دوره­های متناوب خشک و مرطوب و اثر این دوره­ها در پیشرفت فرآیند­های هوازدگی دارد. از دیگر نتایج جالب توجه در مطالعه میکرومورفولوژی خاک­های منطقه موردمطالعه، حجم زیاد رس تولید شده در برخی از خاکرخ­ها به علت شدت هوادیدگی بیشتر شیشه آتشفشان بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Micromorphological Evidences of Basalt and Volcanic Glass Weathering in Semi-arid Soils of Middle Alborz

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Raheb 1
  • Ahmad Heidari 2
  • Bahareh Karimzadeh 3
1 Assistant Professor Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, University of Tehran, Karaj-Iran
2 Professor, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, University of Tehran, Karaj-Iran
3 MSc Student Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resource, University of Tehran, Karaj-Iran
چکیده [English]

As regards Iran is covered by many arid and semi-arid regions, the formation of soil-pedogenic features are very important and effective to have a better understanding of the topics of the soil sciences in these regions. Parent material is one of the main factors controlling soil properties in arid and semiarid regions. Basalt and volcanic glass are among igneous rocks that contain minerals susceptible to weathering minerals. Their weathering products are deposited as secondary minerals and different cations in the soil and the consumption of weathering products accelerate the weathering, soil formation and evolution during these processes. In this study, morphological and physicochemical properties of eight soil profiles formed on basalt rocks in semiarid region of middle Alborz were investigated and micromorphological properties were studied in six thin sections. Micromorphological observations showed different evidences of the occurrence of weathering processes. Formation of hypocoating and nodules of iron oxide and manganese, cubic microstructure and its evolution in different soils from semi-angular to angular cubic, layered clayey clusters indicating periodic deposition of this. Also, the layers were in favorable conditions, and the formation of a variety of pedogenic carbonate effects such as nodules, coating and hypocoating, cavities filled by micritic and sparite crystals were suggested alternating dry and wet periods, and the effect of these periods on progresses in weathering processes. One of the unanticipated consequences in the micromorphological study was the large volume of clay produced in some soil profiles due to the greater weathering intensity of volcanic glass.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • basalt
  • soil formation
  • pedogenic carbonate effects
  • Micromorphology
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