تولید کود اوره کندرها با استفاده از پوشش نانوکامپوزیت پلیمری بر پایه نشاسته و بررسی اثرات آن بر رشد گیاه گوجه‌فرنگی (Lycopersicon esculentum L.)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

2 بخش نانوتکنولوژی، پژوهشگاه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران، کرج، ایران.

3 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران کرج ایران

4 بخش نانوتکنولوژی، پژوهشگاه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

5 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران کرج ایران

6 گروه علوم و مهندسی علوم خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج ایران

چکیده

بخش چشمگیری از نیتروژن موجود در کودهای نیتروژن­دار به دلیل بالا بودن سرعت حل شوندگی در آب، به بخش­های زیرین خاک نفوذ می­کند و از دسترس گیاه خارج می­شود. برای جلوگیری از این هدر رفت روش­های گوناگونی مورد استفاده قرار گرفته که یکی از پرکاربردترین روش­ها، استفاده از پوشش برای کاهش سرعت حل­شوندگی در آب است. هدف از این پژوهش تولید کودهای کندرها نانوکامپوزیت پلیمری نشاسته (به لحاظ تطابق با محیط زیست و تجزیه پذیری آن) و بررسی اثر مقایسه‎ای این کودها، بر رشد و پاسخ های تغذیه‎ای گیاه گوجه­فرنگی می­باشد. در ابتدا دو فرمولاسیون کود اوره پوشش­دهی شده با نانوکامپوزیت پلیمری نشاسته حاوی نانوذرات بیوچار (A) و نانوکامپوزیت پلیمری نشاسته بدون حضور نانوذرات (B) سنتز شدند. پس از مشخصه­­یابی کودهای سنتز شده، به­منظور بررسی اثرات آنها بر خصوصیات رشدی گوجه­فرنگی، کودهای A، B و اوره معمولی با دو غلظت 180 و 420 کیلوگرم در هکتار (60 و 140 میلی­گرم در کیلوگرم) به­صورت طرح فاکتوریل بر پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی پژوهشگاه بیوتکنولوژی کرج مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که افزودن نانوذرات، زمان رهاسازی کود را به­دلیل تعامل مطلوب پلیمر و پرکننده افزایش می­دهد، به­طوری­که میزان رهاسازی نیتروژن از کود A  بعد از 21 روز در pH، 2، 6 و 10 به­ترتیب 46/49، 52/18 و 13/45 درصد نسبت به کود B کاهش یافت. افزایش غلظت کود مورد استفاده در اکثر صفات تفاوت معنی­داری ایجاد نکرد؛ اما کودهای سنتزشده اثر معنی­داری بر خصوصیات رشدی گیاه داشتند. کارآیی مصرف نیتروژن و بازیابی ظاهری نیتروژن با استفاده از این کودها افزایش یافت؛ علاوه بر این، درصد نیتروژن کل و میزان نیترات موجود در اندام­هوایی در گیاهان تیمار شده با کود­های کندرها در مقایسه با اوره به­ترتیب افزایش و کاهش یافتند. میزان کارآیی مصرف نیتروژن در تیمارهای کودی A و B  با کاربرد 420 کیلوگرم در هکتار، به­ترتیب 85/7 و 68/14 درصد نسبت به کود اوره افزایش نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Synthesis of Slow-release Urea Fertilizer Using Starch-based Polymer Nanocomposite Coating and Investigation of Its Effect on Tomato Growth

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehri Salimi 1
  • Elaheh Motamedi 2
  • Babak Motesharezadeh 3
  • Daryoush Davoodi 4
  • Hossein Ali Alikhani 5
  • Hossein Mir Seyed Hosseini 6
1 Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
2 Nanotechnology Department, Agriculture Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran
3 Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 Nanotechnology Department, Agriculture Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran, Karaj, Iran
5 Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
6 Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

A significant part of the nitrogen fertilizers due to the high solubility in water, penetrates into the lower parts of the soil and become unavailable to the plant. To prevent nitrogen losses, various methods have been used, of which coatings is the most widely used methods to reduce the rate of dissolution in water. The objective of the current study was to produce novel slow release fertilizers (SRFs) using starch-based polymer nanocomposites (in terms of environmental compatibility and degradability) and to investigate the comparative efficiency of these samples on the growth and nutritional responses of tomatoes. Firstly, two formulations of urea fertilizer coated with starch-based polymer nanocomposite reinforced with biochar nanoparticles (A) and pristine polymer without nanoparticles (B) were synthesized. Then, the effects of two levels (180 and 420 kg/ha or 60 and 140 mg/kg) synthesized SRF samples (A and B) and un-coated urea granule fertilizer (as a control) on morphological characteristics of tomatoes were investigated. A factorial design based on the completely randomized blocks with three replications was performed at Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute, Karaj. The results showed that the presence of nanoparticles increases the release time of urea from the coating layer, and it was prolonged with increasing the amount of NCNPs because of favorable interfacial polymer-filler interactions. So that, the nitrogen release rate from sample A, at pH= 2, 6 and 10, was respectively decreased 49.46, 18.52 and 45.13% as compared to sample B. Moreover, application of SRF samples increased nitrogen use efficiency, nitrogen agronomic efficiency and apparent nitrogen recovery. So that, the nitrogen use efficiency in fertilizer treatments A and B with usage of 420 kg/ha was respectively increased 7/85 and 14/68% compared to urea fertilizer.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biodegradable
  • Nanobiochar
  • Nanocomposite
  • Slow release fertilizer
  • starch
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