ارزیابی چرخه حیات (LCA) سامانه پخش سیلاب حوزه آبخیز دئفه رفسنجان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه احیاء مناطق خشک و کوهستانی، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

2 گروه محیط زیست، دانشکدۀ منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

3 دانشیار پژوهشگاه صنعت نفت، تهران، ایران.

4 دانشیار گروه محیط زیست، دانشکده مهندسی عمران، دانشگاه صنعتی خواجه نصیرالدین طوسی، تهران، ایران.

5 استادیار سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، پژوهشکده پسته، رفسنجان، ایران.

چکیده

امروزه در سراسر جهان اثرات محیط­زیستی به عنوان یکی از مهمترین ابعاد توسعه پایدار، تأثیرات بسزایی در تصمیم­گیری­های راهبردی دارد. مدیریت منابع آب به دلیل رابطه دوسویه با توسعه پایدار و تسهیل‌کننده این مسیر، به ویژه در مناطق خشک و نیمه­خشک، از جمله حساس­ترین اقدامات است. یکی از اهداف اصلی LCA ارزیابی پیامدهای محیط­زیستی انتشارات است. در این مقاله با استفاده از این رویکرد به این مسئله پرداخته می­شود که انتخاب اقدامات مکانیکی آبخیزداری جهت مدیریت منابع آب، تا چه حد با محیط‌زیست سازگار است. لذا جریان مواد و انرژی و اثرات محیط­زیستی تمامی مراحل چرخه حیات یک واحد سامانه پخش سیلاب (واقع در حوزه آبخیز دئفه در دشت رفسنجان) با استفاده از رویکرد چرخه حیات و بر اساس روش IMPACT 2002+ در نرم‌افزار سیماپرو مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد سازه خاکی موجود در سامانه پخش سیلاب، با تعلق 34/91 درصد از بارهای محیط­زیستی مرحله ساخت و 2/55 درصد از کل اثرات به میزان kPt 37/8 ، به عنوان نقاط داغ یک سامانه پخش سیلاب محسوب می­شود. یافته­های مطالعه نمایان ساخت که پیامدهای محیط­زیستی انتشارات در طی چرخه حیات این سامانه kPt 2/15 است. مرحله ساخت با بیشترین مقدار اثرات محیط­زیستی در تمامی طبقات اثر به جز تخریب منابع 2/39 درصد، مرحله استفاده 3/31 درصد، استخراج و بهره­وری مواد 3/23 درصد و مرحله حمل و نقل 93/0 درصد از بارهای محیط­زیستی را به خود اختصاص می­دهند. مقادیر پیامدهای محیط­زیستی در طبقات اثر سوء بر سلامت انسان، تغییر اقلیم، تخریب منابع و تخریب اکوسیستم سامانه پخش­سیلاب به ترتیب kPt 63/6 ، 54/3، 06/3 و 94/1 است. نتایج این تحقیق جهت ارزیابی اثرات محیط­زیستی سازه­های مختلف نیز مفید خواهد بود. در نهایت پیشنهاد می­شود توسعه ارزیابی چرخه حیات و رویکرد ساختمان سبز در مدیریت جامع حوزه آبخیز که برای خود رسالت حفاظت از منابع طبیعی کشورمان را قائل هستند، از جمله انتخاب دبی طرح با ملاحظات محیط­زیستی، مقادیر و نوع مواد و تجهیزات سازگار با محیط­زیست پیاده­سازی گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Life Cycle Assessment of Flood Spreading System Daefeh Watershed in Rafsanjan Plain

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fahime Jafari Mehdiabad 1
  • Mohammad Jafari 1
  • Alireza Moghaddam Nia 1
  • Mazaher moeinaddini 2
  • Ebrahim alaiee 3
  • Mohammad Reza Sabour 4
  • Mohammad Abdolahi Ezzatabadi 5
1 Department of Reclamation of Arid and Mountainous Regions, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tehran University, Karaj, Iran
2 Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Resources, Tehran University, Karaj, Iran
3 Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Environment Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
5 Pistachio Research Center, Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agriculture Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rafsanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Nowadays, around the world, environmental impacts, as one of the most important dimensions of sustainable development, play a significant role in strategic decision makings. Water resources management is one of the most sensitive measures due to its bi-directional relationship with sustainable development and also as a facilitator of this path, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. One of the main purpose of the LCA approach is to assess the environmental impact of emissions. In this study, environmental compatibility of mechanical watershed management measures to manage water resources is investigated by using this approach. Therefore, material flow, energy and environmental impacts of all stages of the life cycle of one unit of flood spreading system (located in Daefeh watershed in Rafsanjan plain) were analyzed based on IMPACT 2002+ method available in the Simapro software. The results showed that the earthen structure of the flood spreading system with 8.37 kPt environmental impact is the hot spot of this system (Mostly due to the earthworks), including 91.34% of environmental burdens in the construction phase and 55.2% of the total emission effects. The findings of this research showed that the environmental consequences of emissions during the life cycle of this system were 15.2 kPt. Construction process stage (with the highest amount of environmental burdens in each impact category except for resource depletion) 39.2%, use stage 31.3%, extraction and productivity of materials 23.3% and transportation stage 0.93% of Environmental burdens were allocated in this study. The environmental consequences of emissions in the categories of adverse effects on human health, climate change, resource depletion and ecosystem depletion of the flood spreading system are 6.63, 3.54, 3.06 and 1.94 kPt, respectively. Also the results of this study will be useful for evaluating the environmental effects of different structures. Finally, it is suggested that in the integrated watershed management, which is responsible for protecting our nation's natural resources, life cycle assessment approach be developed and the green building approach could be implemented, such as selecting the design discharge with environmental considerations, selecting quantities and types of environmentally friendly materials.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Life Cycle Assessment
  • environment
  • Flood Spreading System
  • Daefeh watershed in Rafsanjan plain
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