ارزیابی مزرعه‌ای عملکرد آبیاری جویچه‏ای در مزارع ذرت و ارائه راهکار‏های مدیریتی با استفاده از مدل WinSRFR (مطالعه موردی: دزفول)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

بررسی‏ها نشان داده است که راندمان آبیاری سطحی در کشور، به­ویژه در استان خوزستان، نسبتاً پایین است. این در حالی است که افزایش راندمان آبیاری و کاهش تلفات آب آبیاری، با توجه به وضعیت منابع آب کشور، امری ضروری است. هدف اصلی این مطالعه، ارزیابی عملکرد آبیاری جویچه‏ای در اراضی شرکت کشت و صنعت شهید بهشتی دزفول و ارائه راهکارهای پیشنهادی از طریق بهینه‏سازی پارامترهای طراحی توسط مدل WinSRFR بود. به منظور دستیابی به هدف، سه مزرعه در منطقه دیلم و سه مزرعه در منطقه BC انتخاب شد. نتایج نشان داد که تلفات نفوذ عمقی و رواناب در مزارع منطقه دیلم به ترتیب بین ۹/۴ تا ۵/۸۱ و 3/۲۴ تا 3/۶۲ درصد متغیر بود. این مقادیر در مزارع منطقه BC به­ترتیب 2/3 تا 2/49 و 6/۵ تا 3/۶۲ درصد تعیین شد. نتایج همچنین نشان داد که در کلیه مزارع مورد بررسی در دو منطقه دیلم و BC مقدار تلفات رواناب بیش‏تر از مقدار تلفات نفوذ عمقی است. این در حالیست که برخی مزارع با وجود تلفات بالا، کم آبیاری شده‏ بودند و راندمان نیاز آبی آنها کمتر از 100 درصد تعیین شد. راندمان کاربرد در کلیه مزارع بین 45-13درصد متغیر بود. به­طور کلی بررسی‏ها نشان داد که مدیریت مقدار و مدت آبیاری بر اساس شکل و مشخصات اراضی مناسب نبوده است، این موضوع به دلیل عدم آگاهی آبیاران از مقدار آب مورد نیاز و عدم قطع جریان ورودی در زمان مناسب است. پس از ارزیابی وضعیت موجود، ارائه راهکار‏های مدیریتی با استفاده از مدل WinSRFR نشان داد در صورتی که مدیریت مناسبی بر طول، شیب و دبی ورودی به جویچه‌ها صورت پذیرد، راندمان کاربرد آب به میزان %8/35 (از %8/29 تا %6/65) افزایش و تلفات رواناب به میزان %7/49 (از %7/59 به %10) کاهش می‏یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Field Evaluation of Furrow Irrigation Performance in Corn Fields and Presentation of Management Solutions using WinSRFR Model (Case Study: Dezful)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Omid Raja 1
  • Hadi Rezaii rad 1
  • Hamed Ebrahimian 2
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Studies have shown that irrigation efficiency is low in Iran and Khuzestan province. However, it is essential to increase irrigation efficiency and reduce irrigation water losses in the field according to the water resources status. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of furrow irrigation in the fields of Shahid Beheshti Agriculture and Industry Company in Dezful and to offer some proposed solutions using optimization of design parameters by WinSRFR model. Three fields in Deylam region and three fields in BC region were selected to determine the irrigation efficiency. The results showed that the deep percolation and runoff losses in the fields of Deylam region varied between 4.9 to 81.5% and 24.3 to 62.3%, respectively. These values were detemined at 3.2 to 49.2% and 5.6 to 62.3% in the fields of BC region, respectively. Overall, the results showed that the amount of runoff losses is more than the amount of deep percolation losses in all the studied fields in Deylam and BC regions. However, despite the high losses, some fields were under deficit irrigation and their water requirement efficiency was less than 100%. The application efficiency in all fields varied between 13-45%. Generally, investigations showed that the management of the amount and duration of irrigation was not appropriate; this is due to the lack of awareness of farmers about the amount of water needed and cut-off of the inflow at the appropriate time. After evaluating the current situation, the presentation of management solutions using the WinSRFR model showed that if proper management of the length, slope and flow rate to the furrows is done, the water application efficiency will be significantly increased 35.8% (from 29.8% to 65.6%) and runoff losses decreased 49.7% (from 59.7% to 10%).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Application efficiency
  • Surface irrigation
  • Deep percolation
  • Runoff
  • simulation
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