اثر کود حفاظتی سیلیکات فسفیت پتاسیم بر پاسخ‌های تغذیه‌ای توت‌فرنگی (Fragaria x ananassa) و کنترل کنه تارتن دونقطه‌ای

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران

2 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران

3 گروه گیاه پزشکی، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران

4 مدیرعامل شرکت کود و سم زرافشان

چکیده

استفاده از آفت­کش­ها، به­ویژه در محصولاتی که به­صورت تازه مصرف می­شوند موجب نگرانی است. هدف از این پژوهش استفاده از ترکیب شیمیایی سنتز شده از عناصر غذایی در کنار ترکیبات کمپلکس کننده و بررسی اثر آن­ها بر کنترل کنه تارتن در گیاه توت‌فرنگی است. تیمارها شامل ترکیب کود تجاری ویروگارد در دو غلظت (2 و 5 در هزار ) (غلظت توصیه شده توسط شرکت سازنده) و کود حفاظتی سنتز شده در این پژوهش در غلظت 10 در هزار (غلظت موثر تعیین شده در پیش آزمایش) و ترکیب کود حفاظتی+ آفت­کش ( نصف غلظت مجاز) و تیمار شاهد (آب مقطر) در دو مرحله اعمال تیمارهای کودی قبل از آلودگی گیاه به کنه و بعد از آلودگی گیاه به کنه در شش تکرار بود که در شرایط گلخانه­ای اجرا گردید. در دوره داشت پس از اعمال تیمارهای کودی، درصد تلفات کنه متأثر از تیمارهای کودی با فرمول هندرسون-تیلتون اندازه­گیری شد. پس از دوره داشت، گیاهان برداشت و ویژگی­های ماده تر و خشک، مساحت سطح برگ به‌عنوان خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی؛ غلظت عناصر غذایی پتاسیم، فسفر و سیلیسیم در اندام هوایی گیاه و همچنین pH و اسیدیته قابل تیتراسیون(TA)، ویتامین ث، مواد جامد کل محلول (TSS) و محتوای آنتی‌اکسیدان میوه به‌عنوان خصوصیات پس از برداشت میوه توت‌فرنگی، اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد بیشترین درصد تلفات کنه (2/79 درصد) در تیمار کود حفاظتی+سم در هر دو مرحله اعمال قبل و بعد از آلودگی گیاه به کنه بود. کود حفاظتی سنتز شده بیشترین اثر را بر روی وزن تر و خشک شاخساره داشت. بیشترین مقدار پتاسیم (g/kg 26/29)، در کود ویروگارد در غلظت 5 در هزار بود و برای دو عنصر فسفر (g/kg 48/6) و سیلیسیم (mg/kg 753) مربوط به کود حفاظتی سنتز شده به‌صورت تکی بود. در مجموع، استفاده از ترکیبات مورد استفاده، علاوه برکاهش مصرف سموم، کیفیت میوه توت فرنگی را نیز افزایش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effective of Potassium Phosphite Silica Protective Fertilizer on Nutritional Responses and Control of Two Spotted Spider Mite on Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Mohsen Hoseini Hoseinabad 1
  • Babak Motesharezadeh 2
  • Jamasb Nouzari 3
  • Peyman Azarfam 4
1 Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, University of Tehran
2 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Science & Engineering,, University of Tehran
3 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agricultural Science & Engineering, University of Tehran
4 Head of Zarafshan Company
چکیده [English]

Pesticides consumption, especially in fresh-use crops creates some concerns. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of chemical synthesis of essential and quasi-essential elements along with complexing compounds and their effects on pest control of two spotted spider mite in Strawberry. Treatments included the combination of virogard commercial fertilizer in two concentrations (2 and 5 per thousand, recommended by the manufacturer) and protective fertilizer synthesized in this study at a concentration of 10 per thousand (effective concentration determined in the pre-test) and the combination of protective fertilizer + pesticide (half permissible concentration) and control treatment (distilled water) in two stages of application of fertilizer treatments (pre-infested and post-infested plants to mites) with six replications which were performed in greenhouse conditions. In the growth period after fertilizer application, the death mites percent was estimated by Henderson-Tilton formula. Also, after three months, the plants were harvested and some morpho-physiological and nutritional characteristics were measured. Determination of nutrient concentrations of potassium, phosphorus and silica in aerial parts of the plant as well as determination of pH and titratable acidity, Vitamin C, Total Soluble Solids and Antioxidant Levels of Fruit as Postharvest Properties of Strawberries were also measured. The highest death percentage of mite (79.2%) was due to the protective fertilizer + acaricide treatment in both stages before and after plant infestation to mite. The synthesized fertilizer had the greatest effect on fresh and dry shoots weight.  Virogard composition at 5/1000 concentrations, It had the greatest effect on fresh and dry weights. The highest concentration of potassium (29.26 g/kg) was belong to protective fertilizer+ acaricide and the highest concentration of phosphorus (6.48 g/kg) and silicon (753 mg/kg) was belong to the synthesized protective fertilizer individually. Considering the efficacy of the compounds used, it is recommended to use these compounds as inducers of plant resistance in order to reduce the use of pesticides and improve the product quality.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Induced resistance
  • IPM
  • Storage time
  • Protective fertilizer
  • strawberry
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