اثرات جنگل تراشی بر برخی ویژگی‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی خاک در زاگرس جنوبی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه خاکشناسی- دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان- ملاثانی- اهواز - ایران

2 دانشیار/ گروه خاکشناسی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان- ملاثانی- اهواز- ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش برای بررسی اثر تغییر کاربری جنگل بلوط به زراعت بر ویژگی‌های خاک منطقه نیمه‌خشک صورت گرفت. ویژگی‌های کیفی خاک دو کاربری در 15 سانتی­متری سطحی مقایسه شد. نتایج نشان داد در اثر تغییر کاربری از جنگل به زراعت، ماده آلی خاک بترتیب از 19/1 به 67/0درصد، پایداری خاک‌دانه­ها از 22/2 به 08/2 درصد و رس قابل انتشار خاک از 4/2 به 87/22 درصد تغییر یافت. این نتایج نشان از کاهش شدید کیفیت خاک در اثر جنگل‌تراشی داشت. با حذف جنگل‌ از یک سو چتر حفاظتی مقابل نیروی قطرات باران حذف و از سوی دیگر ورود ماده آلی به سطح خاک کاهش و سبب کاهش پایداری خاک‌دانه و افزایش رس قابل انتشار شد. رس قابل انتشار، سبب ایجاد سله سطحی و تسریع فرسایش خاک گردید. در اثر کاهش ماده آلی، جرم مخصوص ظاهری نیز افزایش یافت. هم‌چنین مقدار سنگ‌ریزه، شن، سیلت درشت و ریز در جنگل به ترتیب از 3/6 ،56، 6/12 و 4/5 درصد به 6/35 و 3/64 و 6/14 و 5/2 درصد در اراضی زراعی تغییر یافت. برخورد مستقیم نور خورشید و گرمای بیشتر خاک به­ویژه در فصول گرم، سبب تسریع در تصعید نیتروژن خاک شده و علی‌رغم افزودن کودهای نیتروژنه به اراضی زراعی، مقدار نیتروژن در خاک­های زراعی کاهش یافت. تحلیل داده­ها به مؤلفه­های اصلی نشان داد که عامل­های مختلفی در اثر تغییر کاربری در چرخش واریمکس­ها اثرگذارند. حذف جنگل عامل اصلی تغییر ویژگی­های خاک و کاهش شدید کیفیت اراضی بود. تغییر کاربری نه تنها سودی برای تولید بیشتر مواد غذایی ندارد بلکه با تخریب کیفیت اراضی، سبب ایجاد سیل و افزایش رسوب از این مناطق می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Deforestration on Physicochemical Characteristics of the Soil in Southern Zagross

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zohre Khodadadie Khamseloie 1
  • siroos jafari 2
1 soil science of, Agriculture science and Natural Resource University of Khouzestan, Mollasani, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Associate professor / soil sciences, Agriculture science and Natural Resources University of Khouzestan, Mollasani, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of land use changes on the land quality under deforestation in semi-arid regions. Soil quality of the top layer (0-15 cm) was compared for two land uses. The results show that the organic matter (OM), aggregate stability (AS) and dispersible clay (DC) were changed from 1.19, 2.22, and 2.4% in oak forest to 0.67, 2.08, and 22.8% in deforestation area, due to land use change. These results showed a severe decrease in soil quality due to deforestation. Aggregate stability was decreased and dispersible clay was increased due to deforestration. In addition, the canopy cover and soil organic matter were reduced. With increasing the DC, it was increased the soil surface crust and accelerate the splash erosion. Bulk density increased, since the OM decreased. Also, the percentages of gravel, sand, coarse and fine silt changed from 6.3, 56, 12.6, and 5.4% to 35.6, 64.3, 14.6, and 2.5%, respectively, due to deforestration. Direct sunlight and higher soil heat, especially in hot seasons, accelerated the volatilization of soil nitrogen and despite the addition of nitrogen fertilizers to the farmland, the amount of nitrogen in the farmland decreased. Data analysis by PCA method showed that the different factors affect the varimax due to land use changes. Deforestation was the main factor changing the soil characteristics and seriously reducing the land quality. Land use change not only does not benefit the production of more food, but also destroys the quality of the land, causing floods and increasing sediment from these areas.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • clay
  • fixation
  • mineralogy
  • potassium
  • release
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