ارزیابی فلزات سنگین در رسوبات تالاب هورالعظیم با محاسبه شاخص‌های آلودگی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ملاثانی، ایران.

2 گروه مهندسی نفت، واحد امیدیه، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، امیدیه، ایران.

چکیده

     فلزات سنگین در سالیان اخیر به دلیل ثبات و پایداریشان درخاک و همچنین ایجاد آلودگیهای زیستمحیطی، شدیداً مورد توجه قرار گرفتهاند. در رسوبات بخش قابل توجهی از فلزات سمی، جذب رسها شده و برای مدت زیادی در سطح باقیمانده و یا در اثر باد، همراه رس به هوا برخاسته و بر شدت آلودگی هوا نیز میافزایند. بخشی از تالاب هورالعظیم تحت تأثیر خشکسالی‌های پی در پی به کانون ریزگرد تبدیل شده است؛ لذا پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی آلودگی رسوبات تالاب هورالعظیم به فلزات سنگین صورت گرفت. به این منظور، تعداد 65 نمونه از عمق 15-0 سانتیمتری رسوبات تالاب هورالعظیم برداشت و با استفاده از دستگاه جذب اتمی غلظت عناصر اندازهگیری گردید. جهت مطالعه سطح آلودگی رسوبات، شاخص ژئوشیمیایی مولر، فاکتور غنیشدگی، ضریب آلودگی و شاخص بارآلودگی محاسبه شدند. نتایج نشان داد که بر اساس شاخص ژئوشیمیایی مولر عناصر کادمیم، نیکل و کروم در محدوده غیرآلوده تا آلودگی متوسط و عناصر سرب، مس، روی، آهن و منگنز در محدوده غیرآلوده قرار دارند. همچنین بر اساس فاکتور غنی‌شدگی عنصر کادمیم دارای غنی‌شدگی شدید، نیکل و کروم غنی‌شدگی متوسط و عناصر سرب، مس، روی، آهن و منگنز غنی‌شدگی اندک داشتند. ضرایب آلودگی نیز برای سرب، مس، روی، آهن و منگنز کم، برای نیکل و کروم متوسط و برای کادمیم در سطح خیلی زیاد بدست آمد. شاخص بار آلودگی، همه‌ی نقاط مورد مطالعهرا غیرآلوده نشان داد. لذا بر اساس شاخص‌های محاسبه شده عناصر کادمیم و سپس نیکل و کروم تا حدی بالاتر از حد مجاز بوده که علت آن را می‌توان ورود از مسیر پساب کارخانجات، تأسیسات نفتی و همچنین کودهای شیمیایی دانست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of Heavy Metals in Hooralazim Wetland Sediments by Calculation of Pollution Index

نویسندگان [English]

  • hajar abyat 1
  • mohammad reza ansari 1
  • Nafiseh Rang Zan 1
  • ahmad abyat 2
1 Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khuzestan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Mollasani, Iran.
2 Department of Petroleum Engineering, Omidiyeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Omidiyeh, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Heavy metals have received much attention in recent years due to their stability in the environment and pollution potential in the soil. In sediments, a significant proportion of toxic metals are absorbed by clays and remain for a long time, so they can increase the severity of air pollution due to dust which is rising by wind. The aim of this study was to investigate the contamination level of heavy metals in Hooralazim wetland sediments which known as dust zone. For this purpose, 65 samples were collected from 0-15 cm depth of Hooralazim Wetland sediments and the concentration of heavy metals were measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. In order to evalute the contamination level, Molar geochemical index, enrichment factor, contamination coefficient and contamination load index were calculated. Based on the molar geochemical index, the results showed Cd, Ni and Cr were in the non-contaminated range to moderate contamination and Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn were in the non-contaminated range. Also, based on the enrichment factor, Cd had the highest enrichement, Ni and Cr had moderately enrichement and Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn had low enrichment. Contamination coefficients were also found to be low for Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn, moderate for Ni and Cr and high for Cd. The contamination load index showed no pollution for the sediments. Therefore, based on the calculated indices, the amount of Cd, and then Ni and Cr were above the standard level. Since, the effluents of industerial, oil fasilitiess and chemical fertilizers are entering into Hoorolazim wetland.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dust Sources
  • Horoalazim Wetland
  • Heavy metal
  • Pollution Index
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