تاثیر کاربرد غشای ژئوسینتتیک حاوی نانو ذره در حذف الکتروکینتیک فلز مس از خاک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه آب، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، مرکز تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

3 گروه مهندسی ژئوکنیک، دانشکده مهندسی , ریاضیات و علوم طبیعی، دانشگاه اکزتر، اکزتر، انگلستان

چکیده

روش الکتروکینتیک، به عنوان یکی از روش‌های فیزیکی و شیمیایی پالایش خاک‌های آلوده و از جمله روش‌های پرکاربرد در تصفیه محیط‌های خاکی و لجن به شمار می‌رود. در این پژوهش، برای بهبود تصفیه به روش الکتروکینتیک، غشایی با استفاده از الیاف ژئوتکستایل و به روش پلیمریزاسیون شیمیایی توسط پلیمر رسانای پیرول و نانو ذره اکسید مس ساخته شد و در تماس مستقیم با ورقه‌های مسی در داخل میدان الکتریکی قرار گرفت. برای ارزیابی کارایی غشای ساخته شده، مدلی فیزیکی طراحی و ساخته شد و با کائولینیت آلوده شده به فلز مس (با غلظت 200 میلی‌گرم در کیلوگرم خاک خشک) پر گردید. جهت واجذبی فلزات سنگین، از پتاسیم کلرید 01/0 مولار به عنوان محلول‌های آنولیت و کاتولیت استفاده شد. محلول هیدروکلریک اسید 1/0 مولار با نرخ 6/0 میلی‌لیتر در هر ساعت به مخزن حاوی کاتولیت تزریق شد. نتایج نشان داد، جاگذاری غشای ساخته شده در میدان الکتریکی، سبب تسریع خروج فلز مس تحت تاثیر فرآیند الکترواسمز شد. علی‌رغم کاهش جریان خروجی از مدل (در آزمایش با غشای ساخته شده)، غلظت مس باقیمانده در جریان خروجی، 6 برابر غلظت مس باقیمانده در آزمایش کنترل بود. افزایش راندمان حذف فلز مس از 5/29 درصد در آزمایش کنترل (در مجاور الکترود کاتد) به  38 درصد در آزمایش با جاگذاری غشای ساخته شده (در مجاور الکترود کاتد)، حاکی از کارایی غشای طراحی شده در تصفیه الکتروکینتیک است. مقدار انباشت فلز مس در مقطع مجاور الکترود آند در آزمایش با غشای ساخته شده به میزان 29 درصد نسبت به آزمایش کنترل کاهش یافت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Application Effect of Geosynthetic Membrane Containing Nanoparticles in Electrokinetic Removal of Copper from the Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • samar behrouzinia 1
  • Hojjat Ahmadi 1
  • nader Abassi 2
  • Akbar Javadi 3
1 Department of water engineering, Faculty of agriculture and natural resource, Urmia, Urmia University, Iran
2 Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Agricultural engineering research institute, Karaj, Iran
3 College of Engineering Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter , Exeter, UK
چکیده [English]

The electrokinetic method is classified as one of the physical and chemical methods of purification of contaminated soils. This is one of the most widely used methods for purifying soil and sludge. To improve purification by electrokinetic method, a geotextile membrane was fabricated by the chemical polymerization method based on Pyyrole polymer and copper oxide nanoparticles. The membrane was placed in direct contact with the copper electrode in the electric field.  To evaluate the effect of membrane in the electrokinetic removal process, a physical model was designed and filled with copper contaminated kaolinite with concentration of 200 mg/kg. For desorption of copper, 0.01 M potassium chloride was used as anolyte and catholyte solutions. 0.1 M hydrochloric acid was injected into the catholyte chamber at a constant rate of 0.6 mL/h. According to the results, Employing the fabricated membrane in an electric field accelerated the removal of copper by the electrokinetic process. In spite of reducing the outflow (in the test employing the fabricated membrane), the residual copper concentration in the outflow was six times of the residual copper in the control test. The removal efficiency of copper adjacent cathode electrode was increased from 29.5% in the control test to 38% in the test employing the fabricated membrane, which indicates the ability of fabricated membrane in electrokinetic purification. The amount of copper accumulation in the test employing the fabricated membrane was reduced adjacent anode electrode and reached 29% compared to the control test.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pyrrole polymer
  • purification
  • Conductive membrane
  • Geotextile
Acar, Y. B., Gale, R. J., Alshawabkeh, A. N., Marks, R. E., Puppala, S., Bricka, M., & Parker, R. (1995). Electrokinetic remediation: basics and technology status. Journal of hazardous materials, 40(2), 117-137.
Almeira, J., Peng, C. S., & Abou-Shady, A. (2012). Simultaneous removal of cadmium from kaolin and catholyte during soil electrokinetic remediation. Desalination, 300, 1-11.
Barari Gangaraj, S. A., Eisazadeh, H., Sadeghi, E. (2014). Synthesis of Polypyrrole Composite and Nano composite by Using Iron(III) oxide and Stabilizer such as Poly(Vinyl Alchohol) (PVA), Sodium Dodecyl Benzen Sulfonate (DBSNa) and Investigation the Characteristics of Products such as Morphology and Chemical Structurein Aqueous Media, Master of Science Degree in Chemical Engineering, University of Shomal, Mazandaran, Iran (In Farsi).
Benamar, A., Tian, Y., Portet-Koltalo, F., Ammami, M. T., Giusti-Petrucciani, N., Song, Y., & Boulangé-Lecomte, C. (2019). Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of multi-contaminated dredged sediments and induced effect on their toxicity. Chemosphere, 228, 744-755.
Cang, L., Zhou, D. M., Alshawabkeh, A. N., & Chen, H. F. (2007). Effects of sodium hypochlorite and high pH buffer solution in electrokinetic soil treatment on soil chromium removal and the functional diversity of soil microbial community. Journal of hazardous materials, 142(1-2), 111-117.
Chang, J. H., Shi, Y. H., & Tung, C. H. (2010). Stepwise addition of chemical reagents for enhancing electrokinetic removal of cu from real site contaminated soils. Journal of applied electrochemistry, 40(6), 1153-1160.
Chen, J. L., Yang, S. F., Wu, C. C., & Ton, S. (2011). Effect of ammonia as a complexing agent on electrokinetic remediation of copper-contaminated soil. Separation and purification technology, 79(2), 157-163.
De Gioannis, G., Muntoni, A., Polettini, A., & Pomi, R. (2008). Enhanced electrokinetic treatment of different marine sediments contaminated by heavy metals. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, 43(8), 852-865.
Eriksson, F., & Gemvik, L. (2014). Electro-Osmotic Treatment of Soil: A laboratory investigation of three Swedish clays. Master of Science Thesis, Division of Soil and Rock Mechanics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Estabragh, A. R., Naseh, M., & Javadi, A. A. (2014). Improvement of clay soil by electro-osmosis technique. Applied Clay Science, 95, 32-36.
Ferrero, F., Napoli, L., Tonin, C., & Varesano, A. (2006). Pyrrole chemical polymerization on textiles: Kinetics and operating conditions. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 102(5), 4121-4126.
Fu, R., Wen, D., Xia, X., Zhang, W., & Gu, Y. (2017). Electrokinetic remediation of chromium (Cr)-contaminated soil with citric acid (CA) and polyaspartic acid (PASP) as electrolytes. Chemical Engineering Journal, 316, 601-608.
Giannis, A., & Gidarakos, E. (2005). Washing enhanced electrokinetic remediation for removal cadmium from real contaminated soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 123(1-3), 165-175.
Gray, D. H. (1970). Electrochemical hardening of clay soils. Geotechnique, 20(1), 81-93.
Hakansson, E., Kaynak, A., Lin, T., Nahavandi, S., Jones, T., & Hu, E. (2004). Characterization of conducting polymer coated synthetic fabrics for heat generation. Synthetic Metals, 144(1), 21-28.
Hamzenejad Taghlidabad, R., & Sepehr, E. (2018). Heavy metals immobilization in contaminated soil by grape-pruning-residue biochar. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 64(8), 1041-1052.
Iranian National Standardization Organization (INSO). (2015). Nanotechnology–Nanomanufacturing- key control characteristics –Part 2-1: Carbon nanotube materials–film resistance. Iran (In Farsi).
Malinauskas, A. (2001). Chemical deposition of conducting polymers. polymer, 42(9), 3957-3972.
Micic, S., Shang, J. Q., Lo, K. Y., Lee, Y. N., & Lee, S. W. (2001). Electrokinetic strengthening of a marine sediment using intermittent current. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, 38(2), 287-302.
Mitchell, J. K., & Soga, K. (2005). Fundamentals of soil behavior (Vol. 3). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Naseh, M., Raeesi Estabragh, A. and Moghadas, M. (2014). Application of Electro-osmosis to Accelerate the Removal of Water form Fine Soils. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 45(4), 491-497 (In Farsi).
Niinae, M., & Aoki, K. (2005). Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of cadmium contaminated soils by chelating agents. European Journal of Mineral Processing & Environmental Protection, 5(2).
Nogueira, M.G., Pazos, M., Sanromán, M.A. & Cameselle, C. (2007). Improving on electrokinetic remediation in spiked Mn kaolinite by addition of complexing agents. Electrochimica Acta, 52(10), 3349-3354.
Peng, G., & Tian, G. (2010). Using electrode electrolytes to enhance electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from electroplating sludge. Chemical Engineering Journal, 165(2), 388-394.
Pirsa, S. (2013). Fabrication of 1, 1-dimethylhydrazine gas sensor based on nano structure conducting polyaniline. Journal of Sciences, Islamic Republic of Iran, 24(3), 209-215.
Reddy, K. R., & Chinthamreddy, S. (2003). Sequentially enhanced electrokinetic remediation of heavy metals in low buffering clayey soils. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, 129(3), 263-277.
Reddy, K. R., & Chinthamreddy, S. (2004). Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of heavy metals in glacial till soils using different electrolyte solutions. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 130(4), 442-455.
Sata, T., Yamaguchi, T., & Matsusaki, K. (1996). Preparation and properties of composite membranes composed of anion-exchange membranes and polypyrrole. The Journal of Physical Chemistry, 100(41), 16633-16640.
Shariatmadari, N., Saeedi, M. and Daryaee, H. (2010). Investigation of Hexavalent Chromium Cr (VI) removal from contaminated clayey soil by simultaneous combination of electro kinetics and Nano zero-valent Iron as a permeable reactive barrier. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 12(3), 71-86 (In Farsi).
Epa, U. S. (1996). Method 3050B. Acid Digestion of Sediments, Sludges, and Soils. Revision2, 12.Wu, J., Zhang, J., & Xiao, C. (2016). Focus on factors affecting pH, flow of Cr and transformation between Cr (VI) and Cr (III) in the soil with different electrolytes. Electrochimica Acta, 211, 652-662.
Yan, Y., Xue, F., Muhammad, F., Yu, L., Xu, F., Jiao, B., ... & Li, D. (2018). Application of iron-loaded activated carbon electrodes for electrokinetic remediation of chromium-contaminated soil in a three-dimensional electrode system. Scientific reports, 8(1), 1-11.
Yeung, A. T. (2006). Fundamental aspects of prolonged electrokinetic flows in kaolinites. Geomechanics and Geoengineering: An International Journal, 1(1), 13-25.
Yousefi-Kebria, D., Khodadadi, A., Ganjidoust, H. and Badkoubi, A. (2009). Ioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons-contaminated soil by non-uniform electrokinetic (NUE). A Thesis for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.). Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU). Tehran, Iran (In Farsi).
Yuan, C., & Weng, C. H. (2006). Electrokinetic enhancement removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater sludge. Chemosphere, 65(1), 88-96.