تأثیر شیمیایی کودهای آلی کمپوست زباله و لجن فاضلاب بر خاک و گیاه گندم

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش باهدف بررسی تأثیر مقادیر مختلف کمپوست زباله شهری و لجن فاضلاب در خاک و گیاه گندم پس از یک و پنج سال مصرف، در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار، در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی رودشت اصفهان انجام شد. در هرسال چهار تیمار کودهای آلی (کمپوست زباله 25 و 50 تن و لجن فاضلاب 15 و 30 تن در هکتار) و تیمار شاهد (عدم مصرف کود آلی)، در کرت­های ثابت به خاک اضافه شد. مصرف کمپوست زباله و لجن فاضلاب سبب افزایش کربن آلی خاک شد. از سوی دیگر مصرف این تیمارهای کودی به‌ویژه در سطوح بالاتر، غلظت عناصر فسفر، پتاسیم، روی، مس، منگنز، آهن، سرب و کادمیوم قابل‌استفاده خاک را افزایش داد. هم‌چنین مصرف سطوح مختلف کودهای آلی باعث افزایش معنی­دار در عناصر غذایی موجود در دانه و کاه شامل نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم و همچنین عناصر کم‌مصرف آهن، روی و مس شد. غلظت اغلب عناصر غذایی اندازه­گیری ­شده در گیاه پس از پنج سال مصرف متوالی کودهای آلی، به‌صورت معنی­داری نسبت به مرحله اول (پس از یک سال مصرف کودهای آلی) افزایش پیدا کرد. در مورد عنصر منگنز این روند به دلیل رابطه آنتاگونیستی با عنصر آهن، معکوس بود. غلظت سرب و کادمیوم در گیاه، در تیمارهای مختلف به حدی کم بود که با دستگاه جذب اتمی قابل‌اندازه‌گیری نبود. در کل کمپوست زباله و لجن فاضلاب ضمن افزایش کربن آلی در خاک، باعث افزایش غلظت عناصر غذایی در گیاه به‌ویژه ازلحاظ عناصر کم‌مصرف مانند روی و آهن شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Chemical Effect of municipal Compost and Sewage Sludge on Soil and Wheat Crop

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Marjovvi
  • parisa MASHAYEKHI
Soil and Water Research Department, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of different amounts of municipal compost and sewage sludge on soil properties and wheat, a field experiment was conducted in Ruddasht research station in Isfahan, for five years. Five treatments including 25 and 50 t/ha/year of municipal solid waste compost and 15 and 30 t/ha/year of sewage sludge and control treatment (non-application of organic fertilizer) were used in a randomized complete block design with three replications for five years. The organic fertilizer application increased organic matter in the soil. Also, the application of organic fertilizers, especially at higher levels, increased phosphorus, potassium, iron, copper, manganese, zinc, cadmium and lead in the soil. Also, the application of organic fertilizers increased signifivantly phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen, iron, copper and zinc in the grain and straw of wheat. The concentration of these elements increased significantly with application of organic fertilizers after five years. For manganese, this trend was reversed due to the antagonistic relationship with the iron element. The concentration of lead and cadmium in the plant was so low that it could not be measured by atomic absorption. In general, municipal waste compost and sewage sludge increased the soil organic matter and the concentration of nutrients in the plant, especially in terms of micronutrients such as zinc and iron.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Municipal compost
  • sewage sludge
  • Soil chemical characteristics
  • Wheat
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