حذف نیتروژن و فسفر از شیرابه دفن‌گاه پسماند سراوان با ریز جلبک کلرلا ولگاریس

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 داﻧﺸﺠﻮی ﮐﺎرﺷﻨﺎﺳﯽ ارﺷﺪ، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استادیار ﮔﺮوه ﻋﻠﻮم و ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﯽ ﺧﺎک، داﻧﺸﮑﺪه ﮐﺸﺎورزی، داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﮔﯿﻼن، رﺷﺖ، اﯾﺮان

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف بررسی زدایش فسفات، نیترات و آمونیوم از شیرابه دفن­گاه پسماند سراوان با ریزجلبک کلرلا ولگاریس انجام شد. همچنین پیامد شیرابه بر ویژگی­های رشدی ریزجلبک شامل وزن خشک یاخته، کلروفیل و کارتنوئید بررسی شد. آزمایش در قالب طرح کاملا تصادفی بهروشاندازه­هایتکرارشدهدرزمان و با سه تکرار انجام شد. شیرابه در سه سطح (بدون شیرابه، شیرابه با رقت 1:1 و شیرابه با رقت 2:1) به‌عنوان کرت اصلی و زمان نمونه­برداری (صفر، 2، 4، 6 و 8 روز) به‌عنوان کرت فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. اندازه کلروفیل کل در تیمار بدون شیرابه بیشترین بود و در تیمار شیرابه 1:1 با تفاوت آماری معنی­دار بیشتر از تیمار شیرابه 2:1 بود (05/0p <).وزن خشک ریزجلبک با گذشت زمان افزایش یافت و با افزایش رشد ریزجلبک، درصد زدایش مواد مغذی نیز افزایش پیدا کرد، به‌گونه‌ای که بیشترین اندازه وزن خشک و کمترین اندازه مواد مغذی در شیرابه با رقت 1:1 در روز 8 انکوباسیون دیده شد. درصد زدایش فسفات، نیترات و آمونیوم در پایان 8 روز انکوباسیون به­ترتیب 76/92، 94/56 و 7/98 بود. معادله سینتیکی ساخت زیست­توده در رابطه با کاهش غلظت فسفات، نیترات و آمونیوم نیز بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد زدایش مواد مغذی از مدل درجه اول پیروی می­کند و معادله موود به‌خوبی توانست رشد ریزجلبک در شرایط محدودکننده با سوبسترا را نشان دهد. اندازه R2 طرح لینویور-برک برای فسفات و آمونیوم 992/0 و 972/0 به دست آمد. بنابراین می­توان از این معادله برای زدایش فسفات و آمونیوم بهره­گیری کرد. در نهایت به نظر می­رسد ریزجلبک کلرلا ولگاریس می­تواند برای پالایش زیستی شیرابه سراوان بکار رود.
 

The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of phosphate, nitrate and ammonium from Saravan landfill leachate by chlorella vulgaris. The effect of leachate on growth characteristics of chlorella vulgaris, including dry cell weight, chlorophyll and carotenoids content was also investigated. The experiment was performed as repeated measures in a completely randomized design with three replications. Leachate levels were considered as main plot (zero leachate (L0), diluted leachates of 1:1 (L11) and 2:1 (L21)) and sampling time (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days) as sub-plot. Total chlorophyll in L0 treatment was the maximum and in L11 treatment was significantly more than the one in L21 treatment (p <0.05). Microalgae dry cell weight and nutrient removal increased over time, so that the highest amount of dry cell weight and the lowest amount of nutrients in leachate (L11) was observed at 8th day after incubation. The percentage removal of phosphate, nitrate and ammonium at the end of 8th day of incubation was 92.76, 56.94 and 98.70, respectively. The kinetic equation of biomass production was also determined in relation to phosphate, nitrate and ammonium removal. The results showed that the nutrient removal followed the first-order model, and Monod's equation was able to well describe the growth of microalgae under restricted substrate conditions.The R2 values of Lineweaver–Burk for phosphate and ammonia were 0.97 and 0.99, respectively. Therefore, this equation can be used to remove phosphate and ammonium. Finally, it seems that chlorella vulgaris can be used for bioremediation of Saravan leachate.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Saravan Landfill Leachate by Chlorella Vulgaris Microalgae

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyedeh Elham Saadat 1
  • Nasrin Ghorbanzadeh 2
  • Mohammad Bagher Farhangi 2
  • Mahmood Fazeli Sangani 2
1 M.Sc. Student. Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of phosphate, nitrate and ammonium from Saravan landfill leachate by chlorella vulgaris. The effect of leachate on growth characteristics of chlorella vulgaris, including dry cell weight, chlorophyll and carotenoids content was also investigated. The experiment was performed as repeated measures in a completely randomized design with three replications. Leachate levels were considered as main plot (zero leachate (L0), diluted leachates of 1:1 (L11) and 2:1 (L21)) and sampling time (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days) as sub-plot. Total chlorophyll in L0 treatment was the maximum and in L11 treatment was significantly more than the one in L21 treatment (p < 0.05). Microalgae dry cell weight and nutrient removal increased over time, so that the highest amount of dry cell weight and the lowest amount of nutrients in leachate (L11) was observed at 8th day after incubation. The percentage removal of phosphate, nitrate and ammonium at the end of 8th day of incubation was 92.76, 56.94 and 98.70, respectively. The kinetic equation of biomass production was also determined in relation to phosphate, nitrate and ammonium removal. The results showed that the nutrient removal followed the first-order model, and Monod's equation was able to well describe the growth of microalgae under restricted substrate conditions. The R2 values of Lineweaver–Burk for phosphate and ammonia were 0.97 and 0.99, respectively. Therefore, this equation can be used to remove phosphate and ammonium. Finally, it seems that chlorella vulgaris can be used for bioremediation of Saravan leachate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ammonium
  • waste
  • Leachate Treatment
  • Monod's equation
  • Phosphate
Abdel-Raouf, N., Al-Homaidan, A. A., and Ibraheem, I. B. M. (2012). Microalgae and wastewater treatment. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 19, 257-275.
Akbari, F., and Madadkar haghjou, M. (2016). Increased biomass and growth of Dunaliella microalgae under the influence of vanillin treatment. Journal of Plant Process and Function, 7(24), 211-228. (In Farsi).
American Public Health Association, A.P.H.A. (1995). Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (Vol. 21). Washington, DC: American public health association.
Andersen, R.A. 2005. Algal Culturing Techniques. Oxford: Elsevier Academic Press.
Aslan, S., and Kapdan, I. K. (2006). Batch kinetics of nitrogen and phosphorus removal from synthetic wastewater by algae. Ecological Engineering, 28, 64–70.
Borowitzka, M. A. (2018). Biology of Microalgae. In Microalgae in Health and Disease Prevention, Academic Press, 23–72.
Brennan, L., and Owende, P. (2010). Biofuels from microalgae—a review of technologies for production, processing, and extractions of biofuels and co-products. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(2), 557-577.
Camargo, J. A., and Alonso, A. (2006). Ecological and toxicological effects of inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems: a global assessment. Environment International, 32: 831–849.
Cetin, A. K., and Kendirlioglu, G. (2017). Effect of different wavelengths of light on growth, pigment content and protein amount of chlorella vulgaris. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 26, 7974-7980.
Chen, R., Li, R., Deitz, L., Liu, Y., Stevenson, R. J., and Liao, W. (2012). Freshwater algal cultivation with animal waste for nutrient removal and biomass production. Biomass and Bioenergy, 39: 128-138.
Chen, J., Zheng, F., and Guo, R. (2015). Algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR) to treat the antibiotic cefradine. Public Library of Science, 10, 1-11.
Chiu, S.Y., Kao, C.Y., Chen, C.H., Kuan, T.C., Ong, S.C., and Lin, C.S. (2008). Reduction of CO2 by a high-density culture of Chlorella sp. in a semicontinuous photobioreactor. Bioresource Technology, 99(9), 3389–96.
Choi, H. J., and Lee, S. M. (2013). Performance of Chlorella vulgaris for the removal of ammonia-nitrogen from wastewater. Environmental Engineering Research, 18(4), 235-239.
Cordero, B. F., Couso, I., Leon, R., Rodríguez, H., and Vargas, M. A. (2011). Enhancement of carotenoids biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by nuclear transformation using a phytoene synthase gene isolated from Chlorella zofingiensis. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 91, 341–351.
Dortch, Q., and Conway, H. L. (1984). Interactions between nitrate and ammonium uptake: variation with growth rate, nitrogen source and species. Marine Biology, 79, 151-164.
Eggink, L. L., Park, H., and Hoober, J. K. (2001). Role of chlorophyll b in photosynthesis: hypothesis. Journal of BMC Plant Biology, 2, 1471-2229.
Environmental regulations for reuse and recycling of waste water. (2010). Bulten No 535, Deputy Director of Strategic Control, Ministry of Energy, Iran.
Eze, V. C., Velasquez-Orta, S. B., Hernandez-García, A., Monje-Ramírez, I., and Orta-Ledesma, M. T. (2018). Kinetic modelling of microalgae cultivation for wastewater treatment and carbon dioxide sequestration. Algal Research, 32, 131–141.
Figler, A., B-Béres, V., Dobronoki, D., Márton, K., Nagy, S.A., and Bácsi, I. (2019). Salt tolerance and desalination abilities of nine common green microalgae isolates. Water, 11, 2527.
Gao, Q. T., Wong, Y. S., and Tam, N. F. Y. (2011). Removal and biodegradation of nonylphenol by different Chlorella species. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 63, 445-451.
Glibert, P. M. (2020). Harmful algae at the complex nexus of eutrophication and climate change. Harmful Algae, 91, 101583.
Hayouni, E. A., Abedrabba, M., Bouix, M., and Hamdi, M. (2007). The effects of solvents and extraction method on the phenolic contents and biological activities in vitro of Tunisian Quercus coccifera L. and Juniperus phoenicea L. fruit extracts. Journal of Food Chemistry, 105(3), 1126-1134.
Hu, Q. (2004). Environmental effects on cell composition. Handbook of Microalgal Culture. Biotechnology and Applied Phycology, 83-93.
Jalal, K. C. A., Shamsuddin, A. A., Nurzatul, N. Z., and Rozihan, M. (2013). Growth and total carotenoid chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b of tropical microalgae (Isochysis sp.) in laboratory cultured condition. Journal of Biological Sciences, 13(1), 10-17.
Kabra, A. N., Ji, M. K., Choi, J., Kim, J. R., Govindwar, S. P., and Jeon, B. H. (2014). Toxicity of atrazine and its bioaccumulation and biodegradation in a green microalga Chlamydomonas Mexicana. Journal of Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 21, 12270–12278.
Kim, J., Liu, Z., Lee, J. Y., and Lu, T. (2013). Removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from municipal wastewater effluent using Chlorella vulgaris and its growth kinetics. Desalination and Water Treatment, 51(40-42), 1-7.
Kim, K., and Owens, R. G. (2010). Potential for enhanced phytoremediation of landfills using biosolids – a review. Journal of Environmental Management, 91(4), 791–797.
Kwon, G., Nam, J. H., Kim, D. M., Song, C., and Jahang, D. (2018). Growth and nutrient removal of chlorella vulgaris in ammonia-reduced raw and anaerobically-digested piggery wastewater. Environmental Engineering Research, 25(2), 135-146.
Li, Y., Chen, Y., and Chen, P. (2011). Characterization of a microalga Chlorella sp. well adapted to highly concentrated municipal wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production. Bioresource Technology, 102, 5138-5144.
Luo, H., Zeng, Y., Cheng, Y., He, D., and Pan, X. (2019). Recent advances in municipal landfill leachate: A review focusing on its characteristics, treatment, and toxicity assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 135468.
Mandal, S. M. Chakraborty, D., and Dey, S. (2010). Phenolic acids act as signaling molecules in plant-microbe symbioses. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 5(4), 359-368.
Markou, G., and Georgakakis, D. (2011). Cultivation of filamentous cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) in agro-industrial wastes and wastewaters: a review. Applied Energy, 88, 3389–3401.
Martınez, M., Sánchez, S., Jimenez, J., El Yousfi, F., and Munoz, L. (2000). Nitrogen and phosphorus removal from urban wastewater by the microalga Scenedesmus obliquus. Bioresource Technology, 73(3), 263-72.
Miazek, K., Goffin, D., and Richel, A. (2013). The effect of vanillin on Chlorella growth. Life Sciences: Agriculture and Agronomy.
Mishra, S., Tiwary, D., and Ohri, A. (2018). Leachate characterization and evaluation of leachate pollution potential of urban municipal landfill sites. International Journal of Environment and Waste Management, 21, 217.
Monod, J. (1949). The growth of bacterial cultures. Annual Reviews in Microbiology, 3 (1), 371-394.
Mutlu, Y. B., Isik, O., Uslu, L., Koç, K., and Durmaz, Y. (2011). The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies and nitrite addition on the lipid content of Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae). African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 453-456.
Nie, X., Xiang, W., Chen, J., Vladimir, Z., and An, T. (2008). Response of the freshwater alga Chlorella vulgaris to trichloroisocyanuric acid and ciprofloxacin. Journal of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 27,168–173.
Pancha, I., Chokshi, K., Maurya, R. K., Trivedi, K., Patidar, S. K., Ghosh, A., and Mishra, S. (2015). Salinity induced oxidative stress enhanced biofuel production potential of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. Bioresource Technology, 189, 341-348.
Padedda, B. M., Sechi, N., Lai, G. G., Mariani, M. A., Pulina, S., Sarria, M., and Luglie, A. (2017). Consequences of eutrophication in the management of water resources in Mediterranean reservoirs: A case study of Lake Cedrino (Sardinia, Italy). Global Ecology and Conservation, 12, 21–35.
Sayadi, M. H. Kargar, R. Doosti, M. R., and Salehi. H. (2012). Hybrid constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment: a worldwide review. Proceedings of the international academy of ecology and environmental sciences, 2(4), 204-222.
Sayadi, M. H., Ahmadpour, N., Fallahi-capoorchali, M., and Rezaei, M. R. (2016). Removal of nitrate and phosphate from aqueous solution by microalgae: An experimental study. Global Journal of Enviromental Science and Management, 2(3), 357-364.
Seckbach, J. (2012). Evolutionary pathways and enigmatic algae: Cyanidium caldarium (Rhodophyta) and related cells. Springer Science and Business Media 91.
Shariati, M., and Taheri, R. (2016). Removal of nitrogen and phosphate from municipal wastewater by Chlorella vulgaris and determination of its kinetic growth equation. Applied Biology, 29(2), 117-130. (In Farsi).
Shariatmadari, N., Lasaki, B. A., Eshghinezhad, H. and Alidoust, P. (2018). Effects of landfill leachate on mechanical behavior of adjacent soil: a case study of Saravan landfill, Rasht, Iran. International Journal of Civil Engineering, 16(10), 1503-1513.
Shaul, O. (2002). Magnesium transport and function in plants: the tip of the iceberg. Biometals, 15, 307-321.
Wang, L., Min, M., Li, Y., Chen, P., Chen, Y., Liu, Y., Wang, Y., and Ruan, R. (2010). Cultivation of green Algae Chlorella sp. in different wastewaters from municipal wastewater treatment plant. Journal ofApplied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 162, 1174–1186.
Xiong, J. Q., Kurade, M. B., Shanab, R. A. I., Ji, M. K., Choi, J., Kim, J. O., and Jeon, B. H. (2016). Biodegradation of carbamazepine using freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas mexicana and Scenedesmus obliquus and the determination of its metabolic fate. Bioresource Technology, 205, 183-190.
Xiong, J. Q., Kurade, M. B., Kim, J. R., Roh, H. S., and Jeon, B. H. (2017). Ciprofloxacin toxicity and its co-metabolic removal by a freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas mexicana. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 323, 212-219.