فاصله بهینه نوار در آبیاری قطره‌ای نواری و بهرهوری آب گندم در بافت خاک لومی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج

2 کارشناس ارشد بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران.

3 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی-باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

در ارتباط با استفاده از روش آبیاری قطره‌ای نواری (Tape) برای زراعت گندم، ابهاماتی از جمله، بهرهوری آب، میزان فاصله مناسب نوارها از هم و چگونگی روند شور شدن خاک وجود دارد که از نظر اقتصاد کشاورزی و پایداری منابع خاک اهمیت دارند. در این راستا برای تعیین بهترین فاصله نوار در بافت خاک لومی از نظر عملکرد گندم و اجزای آن، بهرهوری آب و روند تغییرات شوری خاک، آزمایشی به صورت طرح بلو‌ک‌های کامل تصادفی با 4 تیمار (فاصله نوار 45 (A)، 60 (B) و 75 (C) سانتیمتر و تیمار شاهد، آبیاری کرتی (D)) در سه تکرار در قطعه زمین با بافت خاک لومی، طی سال‌های 1396 تا 1398در منطقه‌ی مهیار استان اصفهان اجرا شد. حجم آب آبیاری در هر دور آبیاری برای تیمارهای A، B و C یکسان بود و در تیمار D میزان حجم آب ورودی به کرت و توقف آبیاری در هر دور مشابه روش زارع بود. بر اساس نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب، اثر تیمارها بر عملکرد دانه و عملکرد بیولوژیکی در سطح یک درصد معنی‌دار و بر بهرهوری آب و شاخص برداشت معنی‌دار نشد. میانگین بهرهوری آب در تیمارهای A، B، C و D به ترتیب 72/0، 71/0، 66/0 و 64/0 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب بود. تیمار D بیشترین عملکرد را داشت و عملکرد بقیه‌ی تیمارها مشابه و در رتبه‌ی بعدی قرار گرفتند. طی دو سال انجام آزمایش مقادیر شوری خاک در تیمارهای تیپ به‌طور محسوسی افزایش یافته بود ولی تیمار آبیاری کرتی شوری خاک را افزایش نداده بود. با توجه به این که مقادیر صفات مورد بررسی در هر سه تیمار تیپ در گروه مشابه قرار گرفتند، لذا فاصله نوار 75 سانتی‌متر برای بافت خاک لومی توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Optimal Distance of DripTapes and Water Productivity of Wheat in LoamySoil Texture

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Farzamnia 1
  • Mokhtar Miranzadeh 2
  • Davood Amin Azarm 3
1 Instructor - Agricultural Engineering Research Department - Isfahan Agricultural and Natural resources Research and Education center, (AREEO), Isfahan, Iran.
2 Master of science - Agricultural Engineering Research Department - Isfahan Agricultural and Natural resources Research and Education center, (AREEO), Isfahan, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor of Horticultural Crops Research Department, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, (AREEO), Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

For wheat crop irrigated with drip tapes, water productivity, optimum tape spacing and soil salinity are issues which are important in terms of agricultural economic and soil sources sustainability. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted on a loamy soil texture to study the effect of drip tape spacing on wheat yield and its components, water productivity and variations in the soil salinity. A randomized complete block design consisting of four treatments; three drip tape spacings (45, 60, and 75 cm; denoted by A, B, and C, respectively), and a basin-irrigated treatment (as the Control; represented by D) was carried out on a loamy soil for two years from 2017 to 2019 in Mahyar area of Isfahan Province. The treatments were replicated three times. The volume of applied water for treatments A, B, and C was identical in each irrigation event, whereas the amount of applied water for treatment D was similar to the farmer method. The result of composite variance analysis revealed that the treatments had a significant effect on grain and biological yield at 99% level of confidence, but they did not have any significant effect on water productivity and harvest index. The average water productivity for treatments A, B, C, and D were 0.72, 0.71, 0.66, and 0.64 kgm-3 respectively. The maximum yield was found for treatment D. During the two years of testing, the soil salinity in the tape treatments was significantly increased, but it did not change in the basin irrigation. Considering that the all three tape irrigation treatments were placed statisticaly in a common group, therefore the 75 cm-tape distance is recommended for loamy soil texture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Wheat
  • drip tape irrigation
  • tape spacing
  • Water use efficiency
  • Soil Salinity
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