مقایسه تأثیر دماهای گرماکافت و مواد فعال‎ساز بر ویژگی‎ بیوچارهای اصلاح شده

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران.

2 گروه علوم خاک دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران.

چکیده

پسماندهای کشاورزی به‎دلیل در دسترس بودن و ارزان بودن، پیش‎ساز مناسبی برای تولید کربن فعال هستند. به‎منظور بررسی تأثیر نوع ماده فعال‎ساز، دمای فعال‎سازی و نوع بیوچار بر خصوصیات بیوچارهای اصلاحی، آزمایشی به‎صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی و با سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل چهار نوع ماده فعال‎سازی (CaCl2، ZnCl2 و H3PO4 20% و H3PO4 50%) و سه نوع بیوچار تولید شده از ضایعات آلی (کاه و کلش گندم، پوست سخت بادام و گردو) و دو دمای فعال‎سازی (300 و 500 درجه سلسیوس) بودند. هم‎چنین تیمار شاهد شامل بیوچارهای بدون تلقیح با ماده فعال‎سازی و حرارت دیده در دمای 300 و 500 درجه سلسیوس بود. نتایج نشان دادند که بیش‎ترین میزان CEC مربوط به بیوچارهای اصلاح شده با H3PO4 20% و H3PO4 50% در هر دو دمای فعال‎سازی 300 و 500 درجه سلسیوس بود. حداکثر میزان pH و EC مربوط به بیوچارهای اصلاح شده با CaCl2 در هر دو دمای فعال‎سازی 300 و 500 درجه سلسیوس بود. بیش‎ترین میزان عملکرد از بیوچارهای اصلاح شده در دمای فعال‎سازی 300 درجه سلسیوس به‎دست آمد. بیش‎ترین میزان کربن آلی (OC) و نیتروژن از بیوچارهای اصلاح شده در دمای فعال‎سازی 300 درجه سلسیوس به‎ترتیب با مواد فعال‎ساز H3PO4 (20 و %50) و ZnCl2 حاصل شدند. حداکثر میزان C/N مربوط به بیوچارهای اصلاح شده با H3PO4 20% و H3PO4 50% در دمای فعال‎سازی 300 درجه سلسیوس بود. با توجه به نتایج، بهترین تیمار برای تولید بیوچارهای اصلاح شده به‎منظور ذخیره کربن در خاک و جذب آلاینده‎ها از خاک، ماده فعال‎ساز H3PO4 (20 و %50) و دمای فعال‎سازی  ˚C300 است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the Effect of Pyrolysis Temperatures and Activating Materials on Properties of Modified Biochar

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohamad MalehMir Chegini 1
  • Ahmad Golchin 1
  • Nader Khadem Moghadam Igdelou 1
  • Kamran Moraveij 2
1 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
2 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan. Zanjan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Agricultural wastes are appropriate precursors for producing modified biochar due to their availability and cheapness. To investigate the effect of activating material type, activation temperature and biochar type on the properties of modified biochar, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. Experimental factors included four types of activating agents (CaCl2, ZnCl2, H3PO4 20%, and H3PO4 50%), three types of biochar produced from organic wastes (wheat straw, almond, and walnut hull) and two activation temperatures (300 and 500°C). Also, the control treatment included non-treated biochar with activating material and heated at 300°C and 500°C. The results showed that the highest CEC content was related to modified biochar by H3PO4 20% and 50% as an activating material at both 300 and 500°C activation temperatures. The maximum pH and EC values were related to the modified biochar by CaCl2 at both activation temperatures of 300 and 500°C. The highest yield was obtained for modified biochar produced at an activation temperature of 300°C. The highest amount of organic carbon (OC) and nitrogen were obtained from the modified biochar produced at activation temperature of 300°C from H3PO4 (20% and 50%) and ZnCl2 as an activating material, respectively. The maximum C/N content was related to the modified biochar activated with H3PO4 20% and 50% at activation temperature of 300°C. According to the results, the best treatment for producing modified biochar in order to store carbon in the soil and to adsorb pollutants from the soil is the H3PO4 (20% and 50%) as an activating material and 300°C as an activation temperature.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Activator
  • Almond hull
  • Biochar
  • biochar modification
  • walnut hull
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