اثر تقسیط کود فسفر بر خصوصیات مورفولوژیک، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد دو رقم برنج (Oryza sativa L.) (هاشمی و گیلانه)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

3 استاد گرده زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

4 دانشیار دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

چکیده

فسفر دومین عنصر پرمصرف موردنیاز برنج بوده که اثرات ناشی از کمبود آن و راندمان مصرف پایین آن اختلالات تغذیه­ای شدیدی را در اراضی شالیزاری جهان ایجاد می­کند. بنابراین اثر تقسیط کود فسفر بر صفات مورفولوژیک، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ارقام برنج هاشمی و گیلانه در دو نوع خاک در آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل زمان‌های مختلف کود فسفر در پنج سطح، نوع خاک در دو سطح و فاکتور رقم شامل دو رقم برنج هاشمی (محلی) و گیلانه (اصلاح‌شده) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد دانه رقم برنج هاشمی در تیمار مصرف کود فسفرِ در دو تقسیط50 درصد پایه و 50 درصد 60 روز پس از نشاکاری، 9/14 درصد و عملکرد دانه رقم برنج گیلانه در تیمار مصرف کود فسفرِ در دو تقسیط 50 درصد پایه و 50 درصد 20 روز پس از نشاکاری، 42/8 درصد در مقایسه با مصرف پایه افزایش داشته است. بیشترین افزایش در صفت درصد دانه­های پر در هر دو رقم برنج مورد آزمایش در خاک سیلتی رس و تقسیط دو مرحله­ای و به ترتیب 1/9 درصد (50 درصد پایه و 50 درصد 20 روز پس از نشاکاری) در هاشمی و 3/18 درصد (50 درصد پایه و 50 درصد 60 روز پس از نشاکاری) در رقم گیلانه دیده شده است. بنابراین می­توان به تقسیط فسفر دو مرحله­ای به‌عنوان راهکاری برای افزایش عملکرد در اراضی شالیزاری نگریست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Phosphorous Fertilizer splitting on Morphological Charcters, Yield, and Yield Components of Two Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars (Hashemi and Guilaneh)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Daemi 1
  • Shahram MahmoudSoltani 2
  • Masoud Esfahani 3
  • Majid Majidian 4
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension, Rasht, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
4 Associate Prof., Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Phosphorus (P), is the second important nutrient for rice that its deficiency and low application efficiency causes severe nutrient disorder in the world paddy fields. Therefore, the effect of phosphorus fertilizer splitting on morphological characters, yield, and yield components of two rice cultivars (Hashemi and Guilaneh) in two soil type was investigated by a factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental factors included time division of phosphorus fertilizer at five levels, two soil types, and two rice varieties (local Hashemi and modified Guilaneh). Results showed that the grain yield of Hashemi cultivar in two-division treatment (50% at the base and 50% at 60th day after transplantion) incresed 14.9% and the grain yield of Guilaneh cultivar in two-division treatment (50% at the base and 50% at 20th day after transplantion) incresed 8.42% as compared to the base application treatment. The maximum increase in filled grain percentages were found to be 9.1% for Hashemi cultivar and two-division treatment (50% at the base and 50% at 20th day after transplanting) and 18.3% for Guilaneh cultivar and two-division treatment (50% at the base and 50% at 60th day after transplanting) in silty clay soil.  Hence, the two-split application of P might be a solution to enhance the rice grain yield at paddy field conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Hashemi Cultivar
  • Guilaneh Cultivar
  • Phosphorous split application
  • rice
  • yield
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