تأثیر کم‏آبیاری بر عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب چند محصول عمده در جیرفت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجو/گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده آب و خاک، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

2 عضو هیئت علمی/مهندسی آب، آب و خاک، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

3 عضو هیئت علمی/ گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده آب و خاک، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

4 عضو هیئت علمی، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده آب و خاک، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

5 رئیس دانشگاه/ گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه جیرفت، جیرفت، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب در گندم (چمران2)، کلزا (هایولا50)، سیب‌زمینی (سانته) و ذرت (704) تحت سطوح مختلف آبیاری، پژوهشی طی دو سال زراعی 96 و 97 به­صورت آزمایش­های بلوک کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات و کشاورزی جیرفت انجام شد. میزان آبیاری در سه سطح 50، 75، 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاهان بود. صفات عملکرد، وزن بیوماس، شاخص برداشت و کارایی مصرف آب برای گیاهان مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که اثر سطوح آبیاری در هر دو سال زراعی بر عملکرد دانه، وزن بیوماس و کارایی مصرف آب گیاهان مختلف در سطح 1 درصد و شاخص برداشت در سطح 5 درصد معنی­دار است. با افزایش آب آبیاری، صفات عملکرد و وزن بیوماس در همه گیاهان به­طور معنی‏داری افزایش یافت. تحت دو سطح آبیاری 100 و 50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه، به­ترتیب سیب‏زمینی و کلزا، بیش­ترین (65/0 تا 74/0) و کم­ترین (2/0 تا 25/0) شاخص برداشت را داشتند. از طرف دیگر، گیاهان سیب‏زمینی و کلزا به­ترتیب بیش­ترین (68/10 تا 76/22 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب) و کم­ترین (29/1 تا 84/1 کیلوگرم بر متر مکعب) کارایی مصرف آب را داشتند. با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش، می‏توان آبیاری گیاهان با 75 درصد نیاز آبی را با توجه به کاهش کمتر عملکرد و کارایی بیشتر مصرف آب در منطقه جیرفت توصیه کرد. به‌طور کلی، بر اساس نتایج این پژوهش، بیش­ترین کارایی مصرف آب به­ترتیب در گیاهان سیب‌زمینی، گندم، ذرت و کلزا مشاهده شد. اما در شرایط آب و هوایی جیرفت، الگوی کشت متناوب سیب‌زمینی با ذرت با توجه به کارایی مصرف آب بیشتر، توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Deficit Irrigation on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Several Main Crops in Jiroft

نویسندگان [English]

  • atefe afshar 1
  • Parviz Haghighatju 2
  • Fatemeh Karandish 3
  • omolbani mohammadrezapour 4
  • Shapour Kouhestani 5
1 student,water engineering department, soil and water faculty, zabol univercity, zabol, iran
2 faculty member, water engineering department, soil and water faculty, zabol univercity, zabol, iran
3 Water engineering Department, Water and Soil Faculty, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.
4 Faculty member, waterengineering department, soil and watre faculty, zabol univercity, zabol, iran
5 Water engineering department, agricultural faculty, Jiroft univercity. Jirot. Iran
چکیده [English]

ABSTRACT
In order to investigate the yield and water use efficiency of wheat (Chamran 2), rapeseed (Hyola 50), potato (Sante) and corn (704) under different levels of irrigation, the present research was carried out in two years 2017-2018 and 2018-2019 as complete randomized block design with four replications at Agricultural Research Center of Jiroft. Irrigation levels were 50, 75 and 100 % of the crop's water requirement. The Yield, biomass, harvest index and water use efficiency were investigated for the proposed crops. The results showed that the effect of irrigation levels was significant during two years on grain yield, biomass and water use efficiency at 1% level and on harvest index at 5% level. By increasing irrigation water, both grain yield and biomass were increased significantly in all crops. Potato and rapeseed had the highest (0.65-0.74) and the lowest (0.20-0.25) water index, respectively. On the other hand, potato and rapeseed showed the highest (10.68-22.76 kg/m3) and the lowest (1.29-1.84 kg/m3) water use efficiency, respectively. The 75% irrigation level is recommended due to lower decrease in yield and higher increase in water use efficiency. In general, according to the results of this study, the highest water use efficiency was observed in potato, wheat, maize and rapeseed plants, respectively. Overall potato and maize rotation is recommended due to higher water use efficiency in Jiroft.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Keywords: Crop rotation
  • Deficit irrigation
  • potato
  • yield
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