تولید خاکپوش‎های آلی و معدنی نوترکیب و ارزیابی تاثیرات آن‌ها بر ویژگی‎های رطوبتی خاک‎های فرسایش‎پذیر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 استادیار گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، ایران

3 گروه شیمی- دانشکده علوم- دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز- اهواز- ایران

چکیده

کاهش رطوبت خاک یکی از مهم‎ترین عوامل وقوع فرسایش بادی و پدیده‎ی گردوغبار است. استفاده از خاکپوش‎ها راهکاری مناسب برای حفظ و افزایش ظرفیت نگه‎داشت رطوبت در خاک است. این پژوهش با هدف ارزیابی اثرات خاکپوش‎های سنتزی آلی و معدنی نوترکیب بر ظرفیت نگه‎داشت رطوبت در مکش‎های 330، 1000، 3000، 5000 و 15000 سانتی‎متر در خاک‎های حساس به فرسایش با بافت سیلت لوم پایه‎ریزی شد. در این پژوهش تاثیرات 3 نوع خاکپوش نوترکیب مشتمل بر خاکپوش آلی (O) ترکیب زغال زیستی باگاس نیشکر، صمغ عربی و ژلاتین در سه سطح، خاکپوش آلی- معدنی (M) MNF در سه سطح 1، 3 و 5 درصد و خاکپوش هیدروژل تقویت شده با نانوسیلیس (H) در سه سطح 1، 3 و 5 درصد به­صورت مخلوط با خاک در پلات‎هایی با ابعاد 5×30×50 سانتی‎متر در رطوبت 75 درصد ظرفیت زراعی در دو دوره‎ی انکوباسیون 2 و 4 ماهه بر روی ویژگی‎های رطوبتی خاک ارزیابی شد. آزمایش به­صورت فاکتوریل، در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی و 3 تکرار اجرا گردید. با افزایش سطوح کاربردی تمامی تیمارها در دو دوره‎ی زمانی دو و چهار ماهه، میزان نگهداشت رطوبت خاک در مکش‎های مذکور به­صورت معنی‎داری افزایش (p <0.01) یافت. همچنین افزودن تیمارها به خاک موجب افزایش معنی‎دار کربن آلی و ایجاد پیوندهای آلی-معدنی منجر به پایداری خاکدانه‎ها شد. بیش­ترین مقدار کربن آلی خاک و پایداری خاکدانه به تیمار خاکپوش آلی که ترکیبی از زغال زیستی، صمغ عربی و ژلاتین است تعلق دارد. در سطوح بالای خاکپوش‎های هیدروژل تقویت شده با نانوسیلیس و MNF نیز برای دوره‎ی زمانی دو ماهه افزایش پایداری خاکدانه‎ای مشاهده شد. همچنین نتایج تجزیه‎ی حرارتی خاکپوش‎های سنتزی، مقاومت حرارتی بالای آن‎ها را تایید می‎نماید. بالا بودن مقاومت حرارتی از جمله آیتم‎های مثبت خاکپوش‎های تولید شده است زیرا نشان می‎دهد که در صورت کاربرد در عرصه‎ی فرسایشی، از ماندگاری بالایی برخوردار هستند. در مجموع افزودن خاکپوش‎های سنتزی آلی و معدنی راهکاری موثر در راستای تحقق اهداف مدیریت پایدار منابع خاک است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Production of Organic and Mineral Recombinant Mulches and Their Effects on Volumetric Moisture of Erodible Soils

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Rizehbandi 1
  • Ataallah Khademalrasoul 2
  • Mehdi Taghavi zahedkolaei 3
1 Dep of soil science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 chemistry department- science faculty- Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz- Ahvaz-Iran
چکیده [English]

Soil moisture reduction is one of the main effective factors on wind erosion and dust storm. Mulch application is a convenient strategy to enhance soil water retention. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of recombinant organic and mineral mulches on water retention in different matric potential including 330, 1000, 3000, 5000 and 15000 cm in erodible soils (Silty loam). in this study the effectiveness of three recombinant mulch types including organic (O) combination of Bagass biochar, Arabic gum and Gelatin in three levels, organic-mineral mulch (M) named MNF in three kevels consist of 1, 3 and 5% and Hydrogel combined with nanosilica (H) in three levels 1, 3 and 5%, incorporated with soil in the plots with 5*30*50 cm dimension, at 75% of FC for 2 and 4 incubations periods were evaluated on soil moisture properties. The experiment was performed as factorial in randomized completely design with 3 replications. With increasing the treatments levels in two and four month incubation persids, soil water retention increased significantly (p < 0.01) at the proposed suctions. Also application of treatments to the soil enhanced the organic carbon and aggregate stability, meaningfully. The highest organic carbon content and aggregate stability was observed for organic mulch (the combination of Bagasse biochar, Arabic gum and Gelatine). Moreover, at high levels of Hydrogel combined with Nanosilica and also MNF the enhancement in aggregate stability was observed for two month incubation. In addition the TGA analyses clearly show the high resistance of produced mulches against temperature. The high resistance against temperature is a positive item related to the recombinant mulches in order to apply the hotspots. In general, the application of recombinant organic and mineral mulch is a convenient scenario to cover the purposes of sustainable management.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Organic and mineral mulches
  • Wind Erosion
  • water retention
  • thermal analysis
  • morphological properties
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