مقایسه کارایی چند معادله برآورد شاخص فرسایش‌پذیری مدل USLE در شرایط آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه حفاظت آب و خاک، پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی

2 کارشناس پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری و دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت منابع خاک، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، ایران

3 دانشیار پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

5 دانشیار بخش تحقیقات حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج

6 کارشناس پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

با اندازه­گیری هدررفت خاک در چهار نمونه خاک با کاربری دیم در آزمایشگاه شبیه­ساز باران و فرسایش پژوهشکده حفاظت خاک و آبخیزداری، و با تکیه بر مفهوم نسبت­ها، کارآیی چهار معادله برآورد شاخص فرسایش­پذیری K-USLE، K-Vaezi، K-EPIC و K-Dg ارزیابی شد. برای هر نمونه خاک، آزمایش­هایی با شدت­های 33، 64 و 110 mm/h در شیب 12% و شدت 64 mm/h در شیب­های 6%، 12% و 25% به­مدت 30 دقیقه‌ در دو تکرار اجرا و میزان هدررفت خاک اندازه­­گیری شد. علاوه بر این، حجم شیار­های ایجاد شده در انتهای هر آزمایش با خط­کش اندازه­گیری گردید. با تقسیم تلفات خاک به حاصل­ضرب عوامل RLSCP رابطه جهانی هدررفت خاک در هر تیمار، فرسایش­پذیری مشاهده­ای (K-Obs.) به­دست آمد که پراکندگی زیادی را نشان داد. با توجه به شکل­گیری کامل فرسایش شیاری در تیمار شدت 110 mm/h در شیب 12%، این تیمار به­عنوان معرف انتخاب و مقادیر K برآوردی با آن مقایسه شد. نتایج، حاکی از کم­برآوردی K-Vaezi (و در یک مورد، مقدار منفی) و بیش­برآوردی سه شاخص دیگر است. کم­ترین اختلاف مربوط به K-Dg با 3-5 برابر بیش­برآوردی است. در مرحله بعد، برای هر تیمار، نسبت K-Obs. خاک­ها به­صورت دوبه­دو محاسبه و با نسبت­­های متناظر هر یک از Kهای برآوردی با آماره t مقایسه شد. نتایج تحلیل نسبت­ها نشان داد که دو شاخص  K-Dgو K-EPIC در سطح احتمال 5% هماهنگی بهتری با K-Obs. دارند. در نهایت، استفاده از K-Dg با اعمال ضریب اصلاحی کاهنده برای خاک­های مشابه توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparing the Performance of Several Erodibility Indices' Equations of USLE Model at Laboratory Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahmood Arabkhedri 1
  • Zahra Gerami 2
  • samad shadfar 3
  • Reza Bayat 4
  • Yahya Parvizi 5
  • Saeed Nabipay Lashkarian 6
1 Assoc. Prof., Water and Soil Conservation Dep., Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization
2 Research Expert, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute and PhD Candidate in Soil Resource Management, Department of Soil Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Iran
3 Assoc. Prof., Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute (SCWMRI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
4 Asst. Prof., Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute (SCWMRI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
5 Assoc. Prof. Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Kermanshah, Iran
6 Research Expert, Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute (SCWMRI), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The performance of four erodibility indices' equations including K-USLE, K-Vaezi, K-EPIC and K-Dg were evaluated by measuring soil loss at four dryfarming soil samples in the Rainfall and Erosion Simulation Laboratory of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management Research Institute. For each soil sample, several experiments (33, 64 and 110 mm/h rainfall intensities, RI, at 12% slope and 64 mm/h RI at 6%, 12% and 25% slopes) were conducted for 30 min in two replicates and the soil loss were measured. In addition, the volume of rills was measured at the end of each experiment. The observed erodibility (K-Obs.) was obtained by dividing the soil loss to RLSCP factors product of USLE in each treatment which showed a high scatter. The 110 mm/h RI on 12% slope was selected as the reference treatment due to complete developed rill erosion network. Then, the estimated K value was compared to it. The results indicate an underestimation of K-Vaezi (and a negative value in one case) and an overestimation of the other three indices. The lowest difference is for K-Dg with 3-5 times overestimation. In the Next step, for each treatment, a ratio was calculated by dividing the K-Obs. of each pair soils and compared with the corresponding ratios of estimated erodibility indices using t-student statistic. The results of ratios analysis showed that the K-Dg and K-EPIC indices had better agreement with K-Obs. at 5% probability level. As a conclusion, it is recommended to use K-Dg by applying a reduction coefficient for similar soils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • dryfarming soil
  • Slope
  • rainfall intensity
  • and rill erosion
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