تأثیر کلش برنج و بیوچار حاصل از آن بر فعالیت‌ برخی از آنزیم ها در یک خاک شنی آهکی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 مرکز ترسیب و مدیریت کربن، دانشگاه دولتی اوهایو ایالات متحده آمریکا

4 دانشکده علوم و مهندسی مواد، دانشگاه نیوسالت ولز،سیدنی، استرالیا

5 دانشکده مدیریت زمین، دانشگاه علمی کاربردی درسدن ، آلمان

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر به بررسی تأثیر بیوماس کلش برنج (RH) و بیوچار حاصل از آن (RHBC) بر برخی ویژگی‌های شیمیایی و فعالیت­های آنزیمی دخیل در چرخه کربن و فسفر در یک خاک شنی آهکی (U) بعد از دو (M2)، چهار (M4)، هشت (M8) و دوازده (M12) ماه انکوباسیون می‌پردازد. برای این منظور آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار و دو تیمار (RH و RHBC) انجام شد. اصلاح‌کننده‌های آلی با مقادیر وزنی %25/1=L1، %5/2=L2 و %5=L3 به خاک افزوده شدند. نتایج نشان داد مقادیر کربن آلی خاک (SOC) به‌صورت معنی­دار (001/0> p) تحت تأثیر نوع اصلاح‌کننده، میزان کاربرد آن و مدت‌زمان انکوباسیون قرار گرفت. بیشترین و کمترین مقدار SOC به ترتیب در تیمارهای RHBCL3M2 و RHL1M12 با 3/96 و 2/73 درصد افزایش نسبت به تیمار شاهد اندازه­گیری شد. تغییرات SOC و نیتروژن کل (TN) با گذشت زمان انکوباسیون مشابه یکدیگر و کاهشی بود. بیشترین مقدار فعالیت آنزیم بتاگلوکوزیداز مربوط به تیمار RHL3M12 (μgPNP.gr-1h-1 6/1) و کمترین آن مربوط به تیمار RHBCL1M2 (μgPNP.gr-1h-1 6/0) بود. تیمارهای RHBCL3M8 و RHL1M2 به ترتیب بیشترین (mgGlu.g-13h-1 6/590) و کمترین (mg Glu.g-13h-1 6/109) فعالیت آنزیم اینورتاز را نشان دادند؛ به‌طوری‌که بیشترین فعالیت این آنزیم در ماه هشتم انکوباسیون مشاهده شد. تیمار RHL3M12 دارای بیشترین فعالیت آنزیم فسفاتاز قلیایی و اسیدی بود که به ترتیب 1/78 و 7/81 درصد افزایش در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد داشت. به‌طورکلی، افزودن بیوچار با کیفیت مناسب به خاک به دلیل کربن بسیار بالای آن نسبت به بیوماس می­تواند منبع بسیار مناسبی برای جبران کمبود کربن آلی خاک و در نتیجه بهبود خصوصیات شیمیایی و بیوشیمیایی باشد. بر اساس نتایج به‌ دست‌آمده، اثرات کلش برنج و بیوچار حاصل از آن در افزایش میزان SOC و هم­چنین فعالیت­های آنزیمی خاک، این اصلاح‌کننده‌های آلی برای بهبود کیفیت خاک­های شنی پیشنهاد می­شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Influence of Rice Husk Biomass and Its Biochar on Some Enzymatic Activities in a Calcareous Sandy Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Firouzeh Nourmandipour 1
  • Mohammad Amir Delavar 2
  • Rattan Lal 3
  • Stephen Joseph 4
  • Christian Siewert 5
1 Department of Soil science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Iran
2 Department of Soil science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Iran
3 Carbon Management and Sequestration Center, The Ohio State University, USA
4 School of Material Science and Engineering, University of NSW, Sydney, Australia,
5 Faculty of Landscape Management, University of Applied Sciences Dresden, Germany
چکیده [English]

The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of rice husk biomass (RH) and its biochar (RHBC) on some chemical properties and enzymatic activities involved in carbon and phosphorus cycling of a calcareous sandy soil (control, U) after two (M2), four (M4), eight (M8), and twelve (M12) months incubation. For this purpose, a factorial experiment with a randomized complete block design and four replications and two treatments (RH and RHBC) was performed. Three levels of organic amendments (L1= 1.25%, L2= 2.5% and L3= 5%) were added to the soil. The results showed that the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) was significantly (p < 0.001) affected by the types of organic amendments, their application rate and incubation time. The highest and the lowest values of SOC were observed in RHBCL3M2 and RHL1M12 treatments with 96.3% and 73.2% increase as compared to the control treatment, respectively. The trend of changes in SOC and TN was similar and decreased with incubation time. The highest and the lowest activity of β-glucosidase were corresponded to the treatments of RHL3M12 (1.6 μgPNP.gr-1h-1) and RHBCL1M2 (0.6 μgPNP.gr-1h-1), respectively. The RHBCL3M8 and RHL1M2 treatments exhibited the highest (590.6 mg Glu.g-13h-1) and the lowest (109.6 mg Glu.g-13h-1) invertase enzyme activity, respectively. So that, the highest enzyme activity was observed in 8th month of incubation. The highest activity of alkaline and acid phosphatases activities were found in RHL3M12 treatment which were 78.1% and 81.7% higher than that in control treatment, respectively. In general, the addition of good quality biochars to the soil could be a very good source for compensation of soil organic carbon deficiency and thereby improving chemical and biochemical properties and soil health, because of its higher carbon content than its biomass. Therefore, based on the effects of rice biomass and its biochar on the increasing of SOC content as well as enzymatic activities, these organic amendments are suggested to improve the quality of sandy soils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Invertase
  • β-glucosidase
  • phosphatase
  • Rice Husk
  • Soil quality
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