ارزیابی مقایسه‌ای مکانی-زمانی پارامترهای کیفی آب و سلامت رودخانه زیارت با استفاده از تحلیل آماری و شاخص کیفی NSFWQI

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی منابع آب ، گروه مهندسی آب، ، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده مهندسی زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری

4 گروه شیلات، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران.

5 دانشجوی دکتری آمایش محیط‌زیست دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

بررسی تغییرات کیفیت آب رودخانه‌ها، از معیارهای مهم در بررسی سلامت حوضه آبخیز است. پایش کمی و کیفی منابع آب، نقش مهمی در مدیریت پایدار اکوسیستمی رودخانه‌ها دارد. در این راستا، در تحقیق حاضر به بررسی کیفیت آب رودخانه زیارت استان گلستان پس از نمونه‌برداری از 6 ایستگاه در طول رودخانه از آذر 1395 تا تیرماه 1396، با استفاده از شاخص NSFWQI پرداخته شد. همچنین جهت یافتن روابط بین متغیرهای فیزیکی و شیمیایی آب، از تحلیل همبستگی و تحلیل خوشه‌ای استفاده شد. نتایج بر اساس استانداردهای سازمان جهانی بهداشت و سازمان حفاظت محیط‌زیست آمریکا، مورد بررسی و مقایسه قرار گرفت. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که در ایستگاه پایین‌دست به دلیل دریافت پساب از منابع مختلف، میزان BOD، Na، Ca و PO4 از دیگر ایستگاه‌های بالادست بیشتر بوده است. تجزیه‌وتحلیل‌های آماری در این پژوهش مبین آن است که بین برخی متغیرهای فیزیکی و شیمیایی رودخانه رابطه معنی‌دار و قوی وجود دارد. یافته‌های این پژوهش نشان داد که میانگین غلظت اکسیژن محلول، مجموع ذرات محلول، کلر، سدیم، فسفات و نیترات به ترتیب 4/5، 5/627، 02/110، 5/48 و 25/9 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر و میانگین غلظت هدایت الکتریکی 1028 میکروزیمنس بر سانتی‌متر است. مقایسه میزان شاخص NSFWQI در 6 ایستگاه رودخانه زیارت در ماه‌های مختلف بیانگر آن است که ایستگاه اول (تول بنه، بالادست) در اردیبهشت‌ماه با مقدار عددی 55، بالاترین و ایستگاه شش (پایین‌دست) در تیرماه با شاخص عددی 35، پایین‌ترین میزان را به خود اختصاص داده‌اند. همچنین کیفیت آب بر اساس این شاخص در ایستگاه‌ بالادست، متوسط و در ایستگاه‌های میانی و پایین‌دست، بد است. تفسیر نتایج نشان داد که از ایستگاه بالادست به سمت ایستگاه‌های پایین‌دست رودخانه، بار آلودگی افزایش و کیفیت آب کاهش می‌یابد. از این‌رو به‌منظور مدیریت کیفی رودخانه مورد مطالعه، می‌بایست به کنترل انتشار بار آلودگی از منابع آلاینده نقطه‌ای و غیرنقطه‌ای تمرکز کرد. نتایج این تحقیق امکان تصمیم‌گیری در خصوص پایش و کنترل منابع آلوده‌کننده و اقدامات مناسب جهت بازطبیعی­سازی اکوسیستم آبی رودخانه را برای استفاده مؤثر از آن در مصارف مختلف فراهم می‌آورد. در پایان با توجه به نتایج حاصل از شاخص NSFWQI می‌توان گفت که این شاخص، کیفیت منابع آب را به سهولت و به طور قابل اعتمادی توصیف می‌نماید و استفاده از آن در راستای مدیریت منابع آب سایر رودخانه‌ها، مفید قلمداد می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Spatial-Temporal Comparisons of Water Quality Parameters and Health of Ziarat River using NSFWQI Quality Index and Statistical Analysis

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohammad hasan naderi 1
  • Masoud Pourgholam Amiji 2
  • Mojtaba Khoshravesh 3
  • Altin Ghojoghi 4
  • Narges Arab 5
1 M.Sc. of Water Resources Engineering, and Ecohydraulic researcher of river habitats, Water Engineering Department, Faculty of Water and Soil Engineering, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
2 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Irrigation & Reclamation Engineering, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Water Engineering Department, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
4 Fisheries Group, Faculty of Fisheries and Environment, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
5 PH.D Candidate of Environmental assessment and Landuse Planning, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Investigation of water quality variations in rivers is one of the important criteria for determining the health of watershed. Quantitative and qualitative monitoring plays an important role in sustainable management of river ecosystems. In this regard, the present study was carried out to evaluate the water quality of Ziarat River in Golestan Province, after water sampling from six stations along the river from December 2016 to July 2017 using NSFWQI index. Correlation analysis and cluster analysis were also used to find out the relationships between physical and chemical parameters of water. The results were compared with the standard values of the World Health Organization (WHO) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The results of this study shows higher values of BOD, Na, Ca and PO4 at the downstream station, as compared to the ones in the upstream stations due to reciving wastewater from different sources. Statistical analysis indicates that there is a significant and strong relationship between some physical and chemical parameters of the river. The results showed that the mean concentration of DO, TDS, Cl, Na, Po4 and NO3 are 5.4, 627.5, 110.02, 48.5 and 9.25 mg/l respectively, and the mean value of Electrical Conductivity was 1028 μs/cm. The comparison of NSFWQI values at the six stations of Ziarat River in different seasons indicated that the first station (Tolboneh, Upstream) had the highest value (55) in May, and the sixth station (Downstream) had the lowest value (35) in July. According to this index, the river water quality is medium in the upstream station and bad in the midstream and downstream stations. The results interpretation showed from upstream toward downstream stations, the pollution load increases and the water quality decreases. Therefore, in order to manage the river water quality, the focus should be done on emission control of point source and nonpoint sourec pollusions. The results of this study provide the opportunity for decision on monitoring and controlling pollutant sources and the proper measures for restoration of river ecosystem for effective use in various applications. Finally, according to the results obtained from NSFWQI index, it can be said that the NSFWQI index describes the quality of water resources easily and reliably and its application is usefull for water resources management of other rivers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Correlation analysis
  • Dissolved Oxygen
  • Pollutant
  • Physical and chemical parameters
  • water resources
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