واکاوی ارتباط وضعیت بهره‌برداری از سامانه‌های آبیاری با میزان آگاهی و مهارت کشاورزان (مطالعه موردی: استان قزوین)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه بین‌المللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین، ایران

چکیده

در حال حاضر کمبود آب یکی از مشکلات تولید مواد غذایی است و در این بین کشاورزی وابسته به آبیاری تأثیر زیادی بر امنیت غذایی دارد. ارتقای سطح دانش و مهارت منابع انسانی از عوامل مهم برای بهبود مصرف بهینه آب در بخش کشاورزی است. این پژوهش به منظور بررسی ارتباط بین وضعیت بهره‌برداری از سامانه‌های آبیاری با میزان آگاهی و مهارت کشاورزان در استان قزوین انجام شد. 18 شاخص کیفی و 88 گویه آموزشی شناسایی شدند. ابزار پیمایش روش دلفی بوده و تحلیل همبستگی به روش آزمون همبستگی پیرسون انجام شد. یافته‌های این پژوهش نشان داد وضعیت بهره‌برداری از سامانه‌های آبیاری سطحی از نظر "کشاورزان"، "صاحب‌نظران" و "آموزشگران" به ترتیب دارای امتیاز 15/1±38/3، 03/1±82/2 و 82/0±05/2 (از امتیاز کل 5) برای زارعان و 06/1±63/3، 94/0±17/2 و 93/0±19/2 برای باغداران بود. وضعیت بهره‌برداری از سامانه‌های آبیاری تحت‌فشار از نظر سه دیدگاه بیان‌شده به ترتیب دارای امتیاز 16/1±74/3، 72/0±55/2 و 76/0±62/2 (از امتیاز کل 5) برای زارعان و 06/1±07/4، 64/0±54/2 و 69/0±61/2 برای باغداران است که نشان می‌دهد وضعیت بهره‌برداری از سامانه‌های آبیاری به‌ویژه از نظر صاحب‌نظران و آموزشگران در وضعیت متوسط به پایین قرار دارند. اختلاف‌نظر معنادار بین کشاورزان با صاحب‌نظران و آموزشگران نشان از اطلاع ناکافی آنان از اصول بهره‌برداری صحیح از سامانه‌های آبیاری داشته است. همچنین، میزان آگاهی و مهارت کشاورزان دارای امتیاز 77/0±39/3 شد و وضعیت بهره‌برداری از سامانه‌های آبیاری (سطحی و تحت‎فشار) دارای امتیاز 86/0±53/3 بوده است. میزان همبستگی (پیرسون) دو متغیر "میزان آگاهی و مهارت کشاورزان" و "وضعیت بهره‌برداری از سامانه‌های آبیاری" 561/0 (در سطح اطمینان 99%) بوده است. این همبستگی، اهمیت و ضرورت بالای آموزش کشاورزان در زمینه‌های شناخت، طراحی و بهره‌برداری از سامانهَ‌های آبیاری را نشان می‌دهد. همچنین، در راستای توانمندسازی کشاورزان برای سازگاری با کم‌آبی‌، سرمایه‌گذاری در بخش آموزش کشاورزان بسیار تعیین‌کننده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the Relationship between Irrigation System Operation Status and Knowledge and Skills of Farmers (Case Study: Qazvin Province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Navid Farahza
  • Bijan Nazari
Department of Water Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Currently, Water scarcity is one of the problems of food production, and irrigated agriculture has a significant impact on food security. Improving the level of knowledge and skills of human resources is one of the crucial factors for improving the optimal use of water in agriculture. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between irrigation system status and knowledge and skills of farmers in Qazvin province. 18 qualitative indices and 88 educational items were identified. The survey tool was Delphi method and Pearson correlation test was used for correlation analysis. The results of this study showed that the status of operation of surface irrigation systems in terms of "farmers", "experts" and "trainers" were 3/38±1/15, 2/82±1/03 and 2/05±0/82 (out of 5 points), respectively for farmers, and 3/63±1/06, 2/17±0/94 and 2/19±0/93 for horticulturists. Status of operation of pressurized irrigation systems in terms of three proposed views were 3/74±1/16, 2/55±0/72 and 2/62±0/76 (out of 5 points), respectively for farmers and 4/07±1/06, 2/54±0/64 and 2/61±0/69 (out of 5 points), respectively for horticulturists. This indicates that the operation situation of the irrigation systems is medium to low in terms of experts and trainers. The Significant disagreement between farmers, experts and trainers indicates that the farmers have insufficient knowledge of the principles of proper operation of irrigation systems. Also, farmers showed that the educational items with their weight of importance were 3/39±0/77 and their status of the operation (surface and pressurized) was 3/53±0/86. The Pearson correlation coefficients of the two variables "Farmers Knowledge and Skills" and "Irrigation System Operation Status" were 0.561 (99% confidence level). This correlation shows the importance and necessity of training in various fields of recognition, design and operation of irrigation systems. Also, for farmers’ empowering in adoption to water deficit, investment in education is very determinant.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Empowerment
  • Irrigation system
  • Pearson correlation
  • Delphi
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