تأثیر کاربرد کودهای زیستی بر شاخص‌های رشدی ذرت (Zea mays L.) در خاک‌های آلوده به سرب

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت- دانشگاه زنجان- دانشکده کشاورزی- گروه زراعت

2 کارشناس ارشد بیولوژی خاک، گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

3 استاد گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی تأثیر کودهای زیستی بر شاخص­های رشدی گیاه ذرت (Zea mays L.) در خاک­های آلوده به سرب، آزمایشی در گلخانه گروه خاک­شناسی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه زنجان در سال 1394 به­صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی در 3 تکرار به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای موردبررسی عبارت بودند از عامل اول: سطوح آلودگی خاک به سرب (0، 50، 100، 200 و 400 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک) و عامل دوم: بدون مایه­زنی (C)، مایه­زنی با باکتری حل‌کننده فسفات(Pseudomonas putida)(P)، مایه­زنی با قارچ Funneliformis mosseae(M)، مایه­زنی با قارچ میکوریز Funneliformis mosseae+ باکتری حل‌کننده­ فسفات (M+P)، مایه­زنی با قارچ میکوریز Rhizophagus intraradices (I)، مایه­زنی با قارچ میکوریز Rhizophagus intraradices+ باکتری حل‌کننده­ فسفات (I+P) بود. پارامترهای مورد اندازه‌گیری شامل: سرب، آهن و مس در ریشه و اندام هوایی، شاخص سبزینگی برگ و ارتفاع گیاه بود. مایه­زنی خاک با قارچ­های میکوریزی و باکتری در شرایط عدم وجود عنصر سرب سبب بهبود شاخص­های رشد و عملکرد گیاه گردید. بر این اساس تیمار مایه­زنی با قارچ میکوریز Funneliformis mosseae + باکتری حل‌کننده­ فسفات (I+M) توانست فاکتور انتقال (TF) را 28/67 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش دهد. همچنین کودهای زیستی توانستند میزان سرب جذب شده را در ریشه گیاه در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد9/61 درصد افزایش دهند؛ به بیان دیگر توانستند سرب جذب شده از خاک توسط گیاه را در ریشه گیاه حفظ کنند. با توجه به نتایج حاصل در غلظت بحرانی سرب (400 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک)، کودهای زیستی نتوانستند تأثیر مفید و فزاینده­ای بر شاخص سبزینگی برگ و ارتفاع در این رقم از ذرت (رقم ماکسیما) داشته باشند. با این حال در غلظت­های کم­تر از فلز سنگین سرب، کود‌های زیستی می­توانند اثرات مضر و سوء این فلزات سنگین را در اندام­های هوایی و ریشه گیاه ذرت (رقم ماکسیما) کاهش دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Biofertilizers Application on Growth Indices of Maize (Zea mays) in Lead Contaminated Soils

نویسندگان [English]

  • moslem heydari 1
  • fatemeh rostami 2
  • ahmad golchin 3
1 Ph.D. student of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University
2 MSc of Soil Biology, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan
3 Professor of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Zanjan University
چکیده [English]

In order to investigate the effect of biofertilizers on growth indices of maize (Zea mays L.) in lead-contaminated soils, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in the greenhouse of soil science department at Zanjan University in 2015. Factor I included: soil contamination levels of lead (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg soil) and Factor ΙΙ, No inoculation (C), inoculation with soluble bacteria, Phosphate (Pseudomonas putida) (P), inoculation with Funneliformis mosseae (M), inoculation with mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae + phosphate solubilizing bacterium (M + P), inoculation with Rhizophagus intraradices mycorrhizal (I), inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi Rhizophagus intraradices + phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (I + P).  The measured parameters were leaf chlorophyll index, plant height, lead of shoot and root, Copper and Iron of root and shoot. Inoculation of soil with mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria improved plant growth and yield indices in the absence of lead. Inoculation with mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae + phosphate-solubilizing bacterium (I + P) increased leaf chlorophyll index 11.65% compared to the no-inoculation treatment (control). Also, biofertilizers were able to increase the amount of absorbed lead in the plant root compared to the control treatment by 61.9%. In other words, they are able to retain the absorbed lead from the soil by plant root. According to the obtained results at the critical concentration of lead (400 mg/kg soil), biofertilizers could not have a beneficial and increasing effect on chlorophyll index and plant height. However, at lower concentrations of Pb, biofertilizers can decrease the harmful and adverse effects of these heavy metals on shoot and root of plant.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heavy metals
  • Mycorrhizal fungi
  • plant yield
  • Phosphate solubilizing bacteria
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