تأثیر کود نیتروژنه بر برخی صفات رشدی و عملکرد گیاه کینوا (Chenopodium quinoa Willd)در شرایط آبیاری با زه‌آب مزارع نیشکر

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 استاد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر کاربرد نیتروژن و آبیاری با زهاب مزارع نیشکر بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد، مقدار نیتروژن دانه و کارایی مصرف نیتروژن کینوا (رقم گیزاوان)، آزمایشی مزرعه­ای در سال زراعی 98-1397 به صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا گردید. در این آزمایش چهار سطح کود نیتروژن (0، 75 ، 150 ، 225 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از منبع کود اوره به عنوان فاکتور اصلی و سه سطح آب آبیاری شامل شاهد (آب کارون با شوری 5/2 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) و آبیاری یک در میان (کارون–زهاب نیشکر با شوری حدود 5 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) و آبیاری با زهاب نیشکر (با شوری 5/7 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) به عنوان فاکتور فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد که حداکثر شاخص سطح برگ، عملکرد دانه، شاخص برداشت و مقدار نیتروژن دانه کینوا با کاربرد 150 کیلوگرم کود نیتروژن در هکتار حاصل شد. حداکثر وزن هزار دانه در تیمار آبیاری کارون (77/2 گرم) مشاهده شد. کاربرد 150 کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار همراه با آبیاری یک در میان سبب بهبود شاخص سطح برگ (51%)، عملکرد دانه (79%)، شاخص برداشت (60%)، محتوی نیتروژن دانه (61%) و نهایتاً افزایش راندمان مصرف نیتروژن گردید. در تیمار آبیاری با زهاب نیشکر، افزایش سطح نیتروژن خاک نه­تنها اثرات نامطلوب شوری را تعدیل نکرد، بلکه سبب کاهش محتوی نیتروژن دانه نیز گردید. به­طور کلی نتایج این مطالعه نشان داد که با مصرف کود نیتروژن کافی می­توان تا حدی اثرات زیان­بار شوری بر رشد و عملکرد گیاه را کاهش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Some Growth Traits and Yield of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) Irrigated with Sugar-cane Fields Drainage Water

نویسندگان [English]

  • Payvand Papan 1
  • Abdolamir Moezzi 2
  • Mostafa Chorom 3
  • Afrasyab Rahnama 4
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
3 Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study the effect of nitrogen and irrigation application with sugar-cane effluent on yield, yield components, grain nitrogen and nitrogen use efficiency of Quinoa (Gizzavan), a field trial was conducted as split plot design in 2018-19. In this experiment, four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 75, 150, 225 kg ha-1) using urea fertilizer as a main factor and three levels of irrigation water including control (Karun river water with 2.5 dS m-1 salinity), alternative irrigation with river water and sugar-cane effluent (with salinity of about 5 dS m-1), and irrigation with sugar-cane effluent (with 7.5 dS m-1salinity) as sub-factor were performed in three replications. The maximum leaf area index, grain yield, index harvesting and nitrogen content of quinoa seed were obtained with application of 150 kg N ha-1. The maximum 1000-grain weight (2.77 g) was observed in treatment irrigated with Karun river water. Application of 150 kg N ha-1 and alternative irrigation improved leaf area index (51%), grain yield (79%), harvest index (60%), grain nitrogen content (61%) and finally increased nitrogen use efficiency. In irrigation treatment using sugarcane effluent, increasing nitrogen levell in the soil, not only did not mitigate the adverse effects of salinity, but also decreased the nitrogen content of the seed. Generally, the results of this study indicated that using adequate nitrogen fertilizer can mitigate the detrimental effects of salinity on plant growth and yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • nitrogen
  • Quinoa
  • Sugar-cane
  • Seed yield
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