بررسی شاخص‌های تنش خشکی در کم‌آبیاری سطحی کنجد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و

2 مربی پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

به منظور مطالعه و ارزیابی شاخص­های تنش خشکی در روش آبیاری سطحی بر عملکرد دانه و اجزای آن، عملکرد روغن دانه، درصد روغن دانه و کارآیی مصرف آب دانه کنجد، آزمایشی در سال 1393 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی بهبهان اجرا گردید. آزمایش به صورت کرت‌های یک‌بار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار اجرا شد. آبیاری در 2 سطح (آبیاری به­ترتیب پس از 100 و 200 میلی­متر تبخیر از تشت کلاس A) به­ عنوان فاکتور اصلی و رقم در 9 سطح به ­عنوان فاکتور فرعی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. مقایسه میانگین کارایی مصرف آب در اثرات متقابل آبیاری و رقم نشان داد تیمار 100 میلی­متر تبخیر از تشت کلاس A و رقم V9 (SG55-92138) با کارایی مصرف آبی معادل 272/0 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب دانه کنجد، تیمار برتر بود. میانگین آب مصرفی در یک سال انجام آزمایش در تیمارهای 100 و 200 میلی­متر تبخیر از تشت کلاس A به­ترتیب معادل 5/547 و 6/438 میلی­متر بود. نتایج ضریب همبستگی پیرسون نشان داد با افزایش تعداد کپسول در بوته، تعداد دانه در کپسول، وزن هزاردانه، کارایی مصرف آب، عملکرد روغن دانه و کارایی مصرف آب روغن افزایش می­یابد. به­دلیل بیش­تر بودن شاخص­های STI، MP، GMP، HM و YI در رقم V9 (SG55-92138) نسبت به دیگر ارقام می­توان رقم V9 (SG55-92138) را از نظر تنش خشکی به عنوان تیمار برتر معرفی نمود. روند کاهشی عملکرد کنجد که با اعمال تنش کم­آبی اتفاق  افتاد قطعاً موجب کاهش شاخص­های SSI، MP و TOL شده است و برعکس کاهش عملکرد کنجد موجب تغییرات صعودی در شاخص­های STI، GMP، HM، YI و YSI  گردیده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Drought Satress Indices in Sesame Surface Water Deficit

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nader Salamati 1
  • Amirkhosro Danaie 2
1 Research Assistant Professor of Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ahvaz, Iran.
2 Member of Scientific Board, Seed and Plant lmprovement Department, Khuzestan. Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

In order to study and evaluate drought stress indices in surface irrigation on grain yield and yield components, oil yield, seed oil content and grain water use efficiency, an experiment was conducted at Behbahan Agricultural Research Station in 2013-2014. The experiment was conducted as split plot in a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Irrigation at two levels (irrigation after 100 and 200 mm evaporation from Class A pan, respectively) was evaluated as main factor and sesame cultivar at 9 levels as sub-factor. Comparison of mean water use efficiency in irrigation and cultivar interactions showed that 100 mm evaporation from Class A pan and V9 cultivar (SG55-92138) with water use efficiency of 0.272 kg/m3 sesame seed was superior. The mean consumed water in one year of experiment was 547.5 and 438.6 mm, respectively in 100 and 200 mm evaporation from Class A pan. Pearson correlation coefficient results showed that with increasing number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule, 1000-grain weight, water use efficiency, grain oil yield and oil water use efficiency increased. Due to higher STI, MP, GMP, HM and YI indices in V9 cultivar compared to other sesame cultivars, V9 sesame was introduced as superior treatment for drought stress. Decreasing trend of sesame yield which was caused by water deficit stress, decreased SSI, MP and TOL indices. Inversely, reduction of sesame yield led to incremental changes in STI, GMP, HM, YI and YSI indices.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • Sesame
  • 1000-grain weight
  • Water use efficiency
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