مطالعه لایسیمتری تأثیر مدیریت سطح ایستابی بر آبشویی نیترات، فسفات و شوری در زه‌آب در دزفول

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دزفول، دزفول، ایران.

2 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی منابع آب، گروه مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دزفول، دزفول، ایران.

چکیده

امروزه مدیریت سطح ایستابی نقش مهمی در صرفه­جویی آب و اقتصاد کودهای مغذی مانند نیتروژن و فسفر و همچنین بهبود کیفیت آب در پایین­دست ایفا می­کند، ولی استفاده از این روش­ها در مناطق گرم و خشکی مانند خوزستان ممکن است به دلیل تبخیرتعرق زیاد و جریان مویینه­ای ایجاد محدودیت نماید. در این تحقیق به‌وسیله لایسیمترهای پلاستیکی امکان استفاده از روش‌های کنترل سطح ایستابی (زهکشی‌کنترل‌شده و آبیاری ‌زیرزمینی) با اعمال مدیریت آبشویی در اقلیم گرم و خشک دزفول تحت کشت گیاه گوجه­فرنگی رقم کینگ­استون بررسی گردید. به این منظور سه تیمار با شرایط مختلف کنترل سطح ایستابی شامل زهکشی‌آزاد، زهکشی کنترل‌شده و آبیاری زیرزمینی در سه تکرار در 9 عدد لایسیمتر (ارتفاع 90 و قطر40 سانتی­متری) در نظر گرفته شد. در این مطالعه، سطح ایستابی با شوری آب برابر 3/2 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر در عمق 50 سانتی‌متر از سطح خاک در دو تیمار کنترل سطح ایستابی و آبیاری ‌زیرزمینی ایجاد گردید. نتایج نشان داد ‌که درصد جرم نمک خروجی در زه­آب زهکشی آزاد و زهکشی‌کنترل‌شده به ترتیب 65 و 45 درصد بود. درصد هدررفت جرمی نیتروژن نیتراتی و فسفات در زه­آب تیمار زهکشی آزاد به ترتیب با مقدار 9/20 و 1/8 درصد بزرگ‌تر از مقادیر مشابه در تیمار زهکشی‌کنترل‌شده با مقادیر 7/13 و 7/5 درصد بود. با توجه به اینکه هدایت‌الکتریکی (EC) در تیمار آبیاری زیرزمینی در منطقه ریشه فراتر از 3 دسی‌زیمنس بر متر نرفت، هیچ‌گونه شست‌وشویی در این بخش صورت نگرفت. لذا نتایج این تحقیق امکان کارایی مدیریت سطح ایستابی را در عمق 50 سانتی‌متری در مقیاس آزمایشگاهی در مناطق گرم و خشک بیان می­کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Lysimeter Study of Water Table Management Impact on Nitrates and Phosphates Leaching and Drainage Water Salinity in Dezful

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Afrous 1
  • Paria Sedigh 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University Dezful Branch, Dezful, Iran.
2 M.Sc. Graduate of Water Recourses Engineering, Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University Dezful Branch, Dezful, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Todays water table management (WTM) plays an important role in saving water and nutrients such as nitrate and phosphorous and also in improving downstream water quality. However, the use of WTM in hot and dry areas such as Khuzestan may be restricted due to high evapotranspiration and capillary flow. In this study, using plastic lysimeters, the feasibility of using water table control methods (controlled drainage and subsurface irrigation) accom`plished with leaching management was investigated in Dezful climate under Tomato cultivar of Kingstone cultivar. For this purpose, three treatments including free drainage, controlled drainage and subirrigation, each in three replications were considered in lysimeters with 90 cm in heghit and 40 cm in diameter. In this study, the shallow groundwater with salinity of 2.3 dS/m was kept at a depth of 50 cm from the soil surface in the controlled drainage and subirrigation treatments. The results showed that the percentage of salts mass in drainage water of free drainage and controlled dariange treatments were 65 and 45%, respectively. The percentage of NO3-N and phosphate mass loss in free drainage treatment were 20.9 and 8.1%, respectively that were higher than those in controlled drainage treatment with values of 13.7% and 5.7%. Since, the electrical conductivity in the root zone in subirrigation treatment did not reach to 3 dS/m, additional leaching did not performed in this treatment. Therefore, the results of this study promise the effectiveness of WTM at 50 cm from the soil surface at laboratory scale and in warm and semi-arid areas.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sub irrigation
  • Controlled drainage
  • salinity
  • Tomato
  • Lycimeter
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