تاثیر تغییرکاربری و احیای اراضی تخریب شده روی برخی از ویژگی‌های کیفی و فعالیت تعدادی آنزیم در خاک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیات علمی، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

2 عضو هیئت علمی گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات منابع طبیعی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گیلان، سازمان تات، رشت

چکیده

در این مطالعه تاثیر تغییر کاربری اراضی (تبدیل جنگل طبیعی به شالیزار) و احیای اراضی تخریب شده بر برخی ویژگی­های کیفی و آنزیمی خاک مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای انجام این پژوهش ایستگاه تحقیقاتی صنوبر در استان گیلان شهرستان آستانه اشرفیه انتخاب شد. نمونه­های خاک از 5 کاربری (جنگل طبیعی، جنگل­های دست کاشت صنوبر، توسکا و دارتالاب و شالیزار) و از دو عمق (20-0 و 40-20 سانتی­متری) جمع­آوری شدند. داده­های این پژوهش به­صورت یک آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفت. فاکتورهای مورد بررسی شامل نوع کاربری اراضی در پنج سطح و عمق خاک در دو سطح بود که در سه تکرار مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. لذا تعداد تیمارهای آزمایش 10=2×5 عدد که با لحاظ نمودن تعداد تکرارها در مجموع 30 واحد آزمایشی بود. در مجموع 30 نمونه خاک دست خورده و 30 نمونه خاک دست نخورده وجود داشت که جامعه آماری آزمایش را تشکیل می­داد. در نمونه­ها برخی ویژگی­های فیزیکی، شیمیایی و بیولوژیکی اندازه­گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که میانگین وزنی قطر خاکدانه (75 درصد)، هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع (95 درصد)، خاصیت آبگریزی (53 درصد)، کربن آلی (52 درصد.)، نیتروژن کل (52 درصد) و کربن زیست­توده میکروبی (53 درصد) در جنگل طبیعی بیشتر از شالیزار بود. همچنین فعالیت آنزیم اوره­آز و آریل­سولفاتاز به طور معنی­داری در خاک شالیزار نسبت به جنگل طبیعی کمتر بود. ولی برعکس، فعالیت آنزیم دهیدروژناز در خاک شالیزار بیشتر از خاک جنگل طبیعی بود و این نشان می­دهد که در دسترس بودن اکسیژن و رطوبت بر فعالیت دهیدروژناز اثر می­گذارد و با افزایش رطوبت خاک، فعالیت آن افزایش می­یابد. احیای برخی از اراضی تخریب شده به­وسیله جنگل­ دست کاشت نشان داد پوشش گیاهی صنوبر موثرتر از پوشش­های گیاهی دیگر در افزایش میانگین وزنی قطر خاکدانه، هدایت هیدرولیکی اشباع و کربن زیست­توده میکروبی بود. در حالیکه تاثیر پوشش دارتالاب در افزایش خاصیت آب گریزی، کربن آلی و فعالیت آنزیم اوره­آز و آریل­سولفاتاز بیش از پوشش­های گیاهی دیگر بود. فعالیت ویژه آنزیم (فعالیت آنزیم در واحد کربن آلی) در دهیدروژناز در شالیزار به طور معنی­داری بیشتر از جنگل طبیعی بود که این نشان­دهنده آن است که فعالیت این آنزیم­ مستقل از تغییرات کربن آلی خاک بوده و به رطوبت خاک وابسته است. به­طور کلی می­توان نتیجه گرفت که در مقایسه با ویژگی­های کیفی و فعالیت آنزیمی، پوشش­دارتالاب بهتر از پوشش صنوبر و توسکا این ویژگی­ها را بهبود بخشید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Land Use Change and Land Reclamation on Some Qualitative Characteristics and Activity of Some Enzymes in the Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra varasteh khanlari 1
  • Ahmad Golchin 2
  • Saead Abdollah Mosavi Kupar 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science. College of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Soil Science. College of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran
3 Research Assistant prof, Research center of Agriculture and Natural, Resources of Gilan province, (AREEC), Rasht
چکیده [English]

In this study, the effects of land use change (conversion of natural forest to paddy fields) and regeneration of deforested land on some qualitative and enzymatic properties of the soil were investigated. For this study, Populus Research Station in Guilan province, Astana Ashrafieh city was selected. Soil samples were collected from 5 land uses (natural forest, populus, Alnus and Taxodium and paddy forests) and two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm). The data were analyzed as a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications. The factors included land use type at five levels and soil depth at two levels that were studied in three replications. Therefore, the number of treatments were 5 * 2 = 10, totally 30 units accounting replications. In total, there were 30 samples of disturbed soil and 30 samples of undisturbed soil that constituted the statistical data of the experiment. Some physical, chemical and biological properties of the samples were measured. The results showed that the mean weight diameter (75%), saturated hydraulic conductivity (95%), water repellency (53%), organic carbon (52%), total nitrogen (52%) and microbial biomass carbon (53%) in the natural forest were higher than the ones in the paddy field. Also, the activity of urease and arylsulfatase in the paddy soil was significantly lower than the one in the natural forest soil. However, the activity of dehydrogenase in the paddy soil was higher than the one in natural forest soil, indicating oxygen availability and moisture affect the activity of dehydrogenase and its activity increases as the soil moisture increases. Reclamation of some deforested lands by hand planted forest showed that Populus vegetation was more effective than the other vegetation covers in increasing aggregate stability, hydraulic conductivity, and microbial biomass carbon. While Taxodium cover increased the activities of urease, arylsulfatase and acid phosphatase more than the ones in other vegetation covers. The specific activity of enzymes (enzyme activity per unit of organic carbon), in dehydrogenase was significantly higher in the paddy soil than in the soil under natural forest. This indicates that the activity of this enzyme is independent of soil organic carbon changes and is dependent on soil moisture. Overall, it can be concluded that, in comparison with the qualitative and enzymatic activity, Taxodium coating improved these properties better than populus and Alnus coating.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Deforestation
  • Soil enzymes
  • Land Use Change
  • Microbial biomass carbon
  • Soil quality
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