بررسی تحمل به تنش خشکی با استفاده از متابولیت‌ها و ویژگی‌های فتوسنتزی در نهال‌های زیتون (Olea europaea L.) رقم زرد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان زنجان

2 دانشیار بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان زنجان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، زنجان، ایران

3 کارشناس بخش تحقیقات زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان زنجان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، زنجان، ایران

4 کارشناس بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان زنجان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، زنجان، ایران

5 استادیار بخش تحقیقات زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان زنجان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، زنجان، ایران

6 کارشناس ایستگاه تحقیقات زیتون طارم، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان زنجان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

زیتون به دلیل ساختار برگ­ها و وجود مکانیسم­های تحمل به خشکی، به­خوبی با شرایط اقلیمی خشک و نیمه خشک سازگار شده است. رقم زرد، یک رقم بومی دومنظوره و مهم­ترین رقم باغات زیتون ایران می­باشد. این پژوهش برای بررسی اثر تنش خشکی روی برخی صفات متابولیکی، مورفولوژیکی و فیزیولوژیکی نهال­های رقم زرد در شرایط گلخانه اجرا شد. در این تحقیق از نهال­های یک­ساله (ریشه­دار شده) رقم زرد استفاده شد. نهال­ها به گلدان­های 10 کیلوگرمی حاوی ماسه، خاک مزرعه و کوکوپیت با نسبت 1:1:1 منتقل و به مدت شش ماه در شرایط آبیاری و تغذیه مطلوب نگهداری شدند. با در نظرگرفتن رطوبت ظرفیت زراعی به­عنوان تیمار شاهد، سه تیمار رطوبتی 75، 50 و 25 درصد ظرفیت زراعی، به­عنوان تیمارهای تنش خشکی (در مجموع چهار تیمار تنش رطوبتی) تعریف و آزمایش به مدت 60 روز ادامه یافت. برای اجرای این آزمایش از طرح آماری کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تیمار تنش خشکی در سه تکرار و تعداد دو نهال در هر تکرار استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که تنش خشکی متوسط و شدید موجب کاهش زیاد هدایت­ روزنه­ای و تعرق از سطح برگ و به دنبال آن، کاهش اختلاف درجه حرارت برگ با محیط شد. علی­رغم کاهش سرعت فتوسنتز، اختلاف این ویژگی از تنش خشکی FC5/0 به بعد، معنی­دار شد که نشان­دهنده فعال­شدن مکانیسم­های تحمل به خشکی در این رقم بود. کاهش سرعت فتوسنتز، به دلیل کاهش مقدار کلروفیل در واحد سطح برگ و همچنین کاهش آسیمیلاسیون دی­­اکسیدکربن و در نتیجه کاهش هدایت روزنه­ای بود. افزایش تجمع پرولین و فنل کل، موجب افزایش مقاومت گیاه در برابر تنش خشکی شد. با در نظرگرفتن عکس­العمل­های نهال زیتون در برابر تنش خشکی، چنین نتیجه گرفته شد که رقم زرد در برابر تنش خشکی تا سطح FC5/0 مقاوم است. با توجه به شاخص­های رشد، رقم زرد را می­توان برای باغ­های مناطق کم آب و یا دارای آب با کیفیت حاشیه­ای توصیه نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Drought Tolerance Using Metabolites and Photosynthetic Characters in Zard Olive (Olea Europaea L.) Cultivar Plants

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahmoud Azimi 1
  • Mehdi Taheri 2
  • Touraj Khoshzaman 3
  • Mohammad Tokasi 4
  • Esmail Sohrabi 4
  • Ahmadreza Dadras 5
  • Azizollah Abdollahi 6
1 Zanjan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center
2 Assoc. Prof. of Soil and Water Research Department, Zanjan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Zanjan, Iran
3 Expert in agricultural and horticultural research Department, Zanjan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Zanjan, Iran
4 Expert in Soil and Water Research Department, Zanjan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Zanjan, Iran
5 Assis. Prof. of Agricultural and Horticultural Research Department, Zanjan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Zanjan, Iran
6 Expert in agricultural and horticultural research Department, Zanjan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Olive has been well adapted to arid and semi-arid climates due to leaf structure and drought tolerance mechanisms. Zard is a native double-purpose cultivar and the most important olive cultivar in Iran. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of drought stress on some metabolic, morphological and physiological traits of Zard cultivar plants under greenhouse conditions. One-year old plants (self-rooted) of Zard cultivar were used in this study. Self-rooted plants were transferred to 10 kg pots containing 1:1:1 sand, field soil and cocopeat and kept for six months with optimal irrigation and nutrition conditions. By considering the field capacity as control treatment, three treatments of 75, 50 and 25% of field capacity were defined as drought stress (totally four treatments) and the experiment was continued for 60 days. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with four drought stress treatments in three replications and two plants per replicate. Results showed that the moderate and severe drought stress significantly reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration and consequently reduced the differences between the leaf and air temperatures. Despite of decrease in photosynthesis rate, its difference was significant in stresses greater than 0.5FC, indicating that the drought tolerance mechanisms were activated in this cultivar. Reduced photosynthesis rate was due to reduction in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area and also in carbon dioxide assimilation and consequently reduction in stomatal conductance. Increased accumulation of proline and total phenol caused to boost the plant tolerance to drought stress. Based on the responses of olive plants to drought stress, it was concluded that Zard cultivar was tolerant to drought stress up to 0.5FC level. According to growth indices, Zard olive cultivar can be recommended for orchards in regions with scarcity or marginal water conditions.

Results showed that moderate and severe drought stress significantly reduced stomatal conductance and transpiration from leaf surface and consequently leaf Δtemperature. Despite of decrease in photosynthesis rate, its differences were significant in stresses greater than 0.5FC, and indicating that drought tolerance mechanisms were activated in this cultivar. Reduced photosynthesis rate was due to the decrease in chlorophyll content per unit leaf area altogether with decrease in carbon dioxide assimilation because of decrease in stomatal conductance. Increased accumulation of proline and total phenol cause to boost the plant tolerance to drought stress. Based on the reactions of olive plants to drought stress, it was concluded that Zard cultivar was tolerant to drought stress up to 0.5FC level. According to growth indices, Zard olive cultivar can be recommended for orchards of regions with scarcity or marginal water conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll
  • phenol
  • Photosynthesis rate
  • proline
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