بررسی اثر همزمان شوری خاک و آب آبیاری بر شوری نهایی خاک و عملکرد کمی و کیفی و کارایی مصرف آب کلزا

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی آب، واحد گرگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرگان، ایران.

2 گروه مهندسی آب، واحد گرگان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرگان، ایران

چکیده

شوری خاک در طول فصل رشد تحت تأثیر شوری آب آبیاری، متغیر است. بنابراین، فرض ثابت­بودن شوری خاک در طول فصل رشد نمی­تواند شرایط واقعی رشد گیاه را در مزرعه شبیه­سازی کند. بر این اساس، پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی برهمکنش شوری آب آبیاری (در شش سطح 2/1، 4، 6، 8، 10 و 12 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) و شوری عصاره اشباع خاک در ابتدای فصل (در سه سطح 3، 5/4 و 6 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) بر رشد، اجزاء عملکرد، عملکرد کمی و کیفی و کارایی مصرف آب گیاه کلزا رقم هایولا 401 انجام شد. برای این منظور آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در منطقه گرگان به اجرا در آمد. نتایج نشان داد که برهکمنش شوری ابتدایی خاک و شوری آب آبیاری بر شوری نهایی خاک معنی­دار است. با این حال، بر اساس تحلیل همبستگی و رابطه رگرسیونی، وابستگی شوری نهایی خاک به شوری آب آبیاری بیشتر از شوری ابتدایی خاک است. شوری آب و خاک تأثیر معنی­داری بر تعداد شاخه فرعی و شاخص برداشت نداشت ولی موجب افزایش معنی­دار تعداد روز تا گلدهی و کاهش معنی­دار صفات تعداد روز تا رسیدگی، ارتفاع بوته و ارتفاع اولین غلاف از سطح زمین، قطر ساقه، طول غلاف، تعداد دانه در غلاف، تعداد غلاف در بوته و عملکرد بیولوژیکی شد. با توجه به مقاومت بالای گیاه کلزا به شوری، عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب (اقتصادی و عملکردی) تحت تأثیر شوری خاک قرار نگرفت ولی شوری آب آبیاری به دلیل واردکردن تنش­های ناگهانی شوری متعدد به گیاه موجب کاهش معنی­دار آن شد. همچنین برهمکنش شوری آب آبیاری و شوری خاک بر صفات درصد روغن، عملکرد روغن و کارایی مصرف آب روغن معنی­دار بود؛ به­طوری که افزایش شوری آب آبیاری از 2/1 به 12 دسی­زیمنس بر متر در سطوح شوری خاک 3، 5/4 و 6 دسی­زیمنس بر متر به­ترتیب منجر به 1/10، 3/7 و 5/10 درصد کاهش درصد روغن و 23، 18 و 28 درصد کاهش عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب روغن شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Simultaneous Effect of Soil and Irrigation Water Salinity on Final Soil Salinity and Quantitative and Qualitative Yields and Water Use Efficiency of Canola

نویسندگان [English]

  • kami kaboosi 1
  • Mahdieh Sarami 2
1 Associate Professor of Water Engineering Department of Water and Agriculture- Gorgan branch- Islamic Azad University- Gorgan- Iran
2 Department of Water Engineering, Gorgan branch, Islamic Azad University, Gorgan, Iran
چکیده [English]

During the plant growing season, soil salinity changes by irrigation water. Therefore, assuming constant soil salinity during the growing season cannot simulate the actual plant growth conditions in the field. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the interaction of irrigation water salinity (at six levels including 1.2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 dS.m-1) and salinity of soil saturated extract at the beginning of the season (at three levels including 3, 4.5 and 6 dS.m-1) on growth, yield components, quantitative and qualitative yields and water use efficiency of a cultivar of canola, Hyola 401. For this purpose, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in the Gorgan region. The results showed that the effect of initial soil salinity and irrigation water salinity on final soil salinity was significant. However, according to correlation analysis and regression equation, the dependence of final soil salinity on irrigation water salinity was higher than the initial soil salinity. The salinity of water and soil had no significant effect on the number of secondary branch and harvest index but they resulted in the significant increase of days to flowering and significant decrease in days to maturity, plant height and height of the first silique, stem diameter, silique length, number of seeds per silique, number of silique per plant, and biological yield. Due to the high tolerance of canola to the soil salinity, seed yield and seed water use efficiency (on the basis of seed yield and economy) were not affected by soil salinity, but the salinity of irrigation water caused a significant decrease of these traits because of the introduction of frequent salinity shocks into the plant. Also, the interaction of irrigation water salinity and soil salinity on oil percent, oil yield, and oil water use efficiency was significant so that an increase in irrigation water salinity from 1.2 to 12 dS.m-1 at different soil salinities of 3, 4.5 and 6 dS.m-1 resulted a decrease of oil percentage by 10.1%, 7.3%, and 10.5% and oil yield and oil water use efficiency by 23%, 18% and 28%, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • interaction
  • Oil of canola
  • Salinity of soil and water
  • Variable salinity
  • Water use efficiency
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