تأثیر کاربرد پایه و محلول‌پاشی کود سولفات روی بر جذب روی، عملکرد و اجزاء عملکرد برنج رقم هاشمی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

2 موسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

کمبود روی پس از نیتروژن و فسفر، مهم‌ترین نارسایی تغدیه‌ای و عامل مهمی در کاهش عملکرد برنج است. بنابراین به منظور بررسی تأثیر کاربرد روش­های مصرف روی (مصرف پایه و محلول‌پاشی) بر برنج رقم هاشمی، آزمایش مزرعه‌ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و در سه تکرار اجرا شد.فاکتورهای آزمایشی عبارت بودند از کودپاشی پایه (کاربرد خاکی) کود سولفات روی در سه سطح (0، 10 و 20 کیلوگرم در هکتار سولفات روی) و محلول‌پاشی 5/0 درصد سولفات روی در چهار سطح (بدون محلول‌پاشی، در زمان حداکثر پنجه‌زنی، یک‌هفته قبل از گلدهی و شروع پرشدن دانه). روش‌های مختلف کاربرد سولفات روی بر تمام خصوصیات اندازه‌گیری شده به استثنای میزان آمیلوز و دمای ژلاتینی­شدن، تأثیر معنی‌داری داشت. بالاترین تعداد خوشه در بوته، تعداد دانه در خوشه، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد زیست‌توده با کاربرد خاکی 20 کیلوگرم در هکتار سولفات روی و محلول‌پاشی در مرحله یک هفته قبل از گلدهی و رسیدگی و همچنین بالاترین محتوای روی آرد با کاربرد خاکی 10 کیلوگرم در هکتار سولفات روی و محلول‌پاشی در مرحله پرشدن دانه حاصل شد؛ در حالی­که بالاترین محتوای پروتئین آرد نیز با کاربرد خاکی 20 کیلوگرم در هکتار سولفات روی و محلول‌پاشی در مرحله یک‌هفته قبل از گلدهی به­دست آمد. کاربرد خاکی 20 کیلوگرم در هکتار سولفات روی باعث بالاترین محتوای روی برگ، ساقه، ریشه و خوشه، محلول‌پاشی مرحله پنجه‌زنی باعث بالاترین محتوای روی برگ و ساقه، محلول‌پاشی مرحله خوشه‌دهی باعث بالاترین محتوای روی ریشه و محلول‌پاشی مرحله رسیدگی باعث بالاترین محتوای روی خوشه شد. بنابراین، کاربرد خاکی 20 کیلوگرم در هکتار سولفات روی و محلول‌پاشی یک‌هفته قبل از مرحله گلدهی و پرشدن دانه، به عنوان راهکاری جهت بهبود کیفیت دانه و همین مقدار کود پایه به همراه محلول‌پاشی در مرحله گلدهی برای عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد مناسب است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Basal and Foliar Application of Zinc Sulphate Fertilizer on Zinc Uptake, Yield and Yield Components of Rice (Hashemi Cultivar)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shahram MahmoudSoltani 1
  • Mehrzad Allahgholipoor 2
  • Maryam Shakouri Katigari 2
  • Ali Poursafar Tabalvandani 2
1 Assistant Professor of Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and extension Organization, Rasht, Iran
2 Rice Research Institute of Iran, Agricultural Research, Education and extension Organization, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Zinc (Zn) next to N and P is the most important nutrient that its deficiency is considered to be a serious widespread nutritional disorder of the world’s rice paddy fields which causes yield reduction. The current field study was conducted to explain the effect of Zn application (basal and foliar) on morphological characteristics, rice yield and yield components, and more broadly, grains bio-fortification (Zn and protein content). The two factors factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications in the farmer field in 2018-2019. The applied treatments were basal application of zinc sulfate at three levels (0, 10 and 20 kg.ha-1 Zn), and foliar application 0.5% zinc sulfate (ZFA) in four levels (no ZFA, ZFA at maximum tillering, ZFA at flowering and ZFA at grain filling stages). Basal Zn sulfate was applied before ploughing and thoroughly mixed with the surface plough layer. Results showed that almost all of the collected data except amylose content and gelatinization temperature were significantly affected by basal and foliar application of Zn, and their interactions (P≤0.01 or P≤0.05). The highest value of spikelet per panicle, grains per panicle, 1000 grains weight, grain yield and biomass were found at 20 kgha-1 basal Zn application and foliar application at maximum tillering and flowering stage, meanwhile the highest grain Zn content and white rice protein content were observed at 20 kgha-1 and foliar application at grain filling stage. The highest Zn content in all rice tissues were obtained at 20 kg.ha-1 basal application. The maximum Zn content in leaves and stems, roots, and panicles were found by foliar application at maximum tillering, flowering and ripening stages, respectively. It can be concluded that in order to produce higher grain and straw yield, the higher Zn treatment and earlier foliar application, whereas for quality factors, latter stage application were effective.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • rice
  • Hashemi Cultivar
  • Zinc
  • Basal Application
  • Foliar Application
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