بهینه‌سازی فرمولاسیون کود زیستی برای افزایش انحلال فسفر توسط قارچ آسپرژیلوس

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

2 استادیار گروه علوم خاک- دانشگاه ارومیه

3 استاد گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

4 دانشیار گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

فسفر یکی از عناصر غذایی پرمصرف بوده که کمبود آن رشد گیاه را به ­شدت محدود می­کند. یکی از ساده­ترین و کم هزینه­ترین روش­های تأمین فسفر گیاه کاربرد مستقیم خاک­فسفات می باشد اما در خاک­های آهکی به علت حلالیت ناچیز آن چندان موثر نیست. استفاده از خاک­فسفات مخلوط­شده با گوگرد و مواد آلی به همراه ریزجانداران حل­کننده­های فسفات از جمله این راهکارها محسوب می­شوند. این مطالعه با هدف مدل­سازی بررسی تأثیر نسبت­های مختلف ورمی­کمپوست، خاک­فسفات و گوگرد بر میزان انحلال و آزادسازی فسفر توسط قارچ آسپرژیلوس و ارائه سطوح مطلوب این متغیرها برای تهیه کود زیستی کارآمد انجام شد. بر این اساس تعداد 20 آزمایش با استفاده از روش سطح پاسخ بر مبنای طرح مرکب مرکزی تعریف شد و اثر مقادیر مختلف متغیرهای ورمی­کمپوست، خاک­فسفات و گوگرد و به صورت کدبندی شده در محدوده­ی (1+، 0، 1-) بر میزان انحلال فسفر بررسی شد. نتایج نشان­دهنده­ کارآمدی بالای (8841/0= R2) مدل طرح مرکب مرکزی در برآورد انحلال فسفر بود. بر اساس نتایج، برهمکنش ورمی­کمپوست با گوگرد ( 05/0>p ) و بر همکنش خاک­فسفات با گوگرد ( 05/0>p ) معنی­دار بود. نتایج تحلیل آماری ضرایب مدل طرح مرکب مرکزی حاکی از اثر مثبت و فزاینده ورمی­کمپوست، ورمی­کمپوست × گوگرد و خاک­فسفات × گوگرد بر افزایش انحلال فسفر می باشد. بر اساس پیش­بینی شرایط بهینه برای انحلال فسفر، مقادیر 58 درصد ورمی­کمپوست، 3/23 درصد خاک­فسفات و 7/18 درصد گوگرد منجر به ماکزیمم انحلال فسفر (04/773 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم) توسط قارچ آسپرژیلوس در کود میکروبی ­می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Optimization of Biofertilizer Formulation for Increasing Phosphorus Solubility by Aspergillus Fungus

نویسندگان [English]

  • masomeh Hoseini 1
  • Mohsen Barin 2
  • MirHassan Rasouli-Sadaghiani 3
  • Farrokh Asadzadeh 4
1 MSc Student, Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Assist. Prof., Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
3 Prof. Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
4 Assoc. Prof., Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Phosphorus is one of the macronutrient that its deficiency severely restricts plant growth. One of the simplest and least costly methods of providing phosphorus is direct application of rock phosphate but in calcareous soils it is not very effective due to its low solubility. The use of rock phosphate mixed with sulfur and organic matter along with phosphate solubilizing microorganisms is considered as a method for increasing rock phosphorus solubility.  This study aimed to model the effect of different ratios of vermicompost, rock phosphate and sulfur on dissolution and release of phosphorus by Aspergillus sp and to optimize the levels of these variables for efficient biofertilizer preparation. Accordingly, 20 experiments were designed using response surface methodology based on central composite design. The effects of different values ​​of vermicompost, rock phosphate and sulfur variables encoded in the constraint (+1, 0, -1) on the dissolution rate of phosphorus were modeled. The results showed a high efficiency (R2 = 0.8841) of the central composite design model in estimating P dissolution. The results also indicated that vermicompost interaction with sulfur (p <0.05) and interaction of rock phosphate with sulfur (p <0.05) were significant. The results of the statistical analysis of the central composite model coefficients indicated that the vermicompost, vermicompost*sulfur and rock phosphate*sulfur additives had a positive and incremental effect on the phosphorus solubility. According to prediction of optimum conditions for phosphorus solubilization, 58% vermicompost, 23.3% rock phosphate and 18.7% sulfur resulted in maximum phosphorus solubilization (773.04 mg / kg) by Aspergillus sp. in microbial fertilizer.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • modelling
  • phosphate solubilizing fungus
  • Central composite design
  • Biofertilizer
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