بررسی تأثیر بیوچار و هیدروچار (باگاس نیشکر) بر عملکرد، بهره‌وری آب و آبشویی نیتروژن در کشت ذرت

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده مهندسی علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 استاد گروه آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده علوم آب، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، ایران

4 استادیار آبیاری و زهکشی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

5 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

چکیده

در جهان امروزی نیاز به سیستم کشاورزی پایداری که در آن منابع زیست­محیطی مورد استفاده قرار گیرد و در عین حال هیچ آسیبی به محیط‌زیست وارد نسازد، بسیار حیاتی است. هدرروی نیتروژن از مهم­ترین مشکلات کشاورزی متراکم و پر تولید است. کاربرد منابع آلی موجب کاهش مصرف نهاده­های شیمیایی و تحقق اهداف کشاورزی پایدار می­شود. کاربرد مواد اصلاح‌کننده نظیر بیوچار و هیدروچار در ایجاد شرایط بهینه رشد و افزایش عملکرد گیاه و کاهش آب مصرفی و همچنین کاهش آبشویی نیترات نقش به­سزایی می­تواند ایفا کند. در تحقیق حاضر تأثیر بیوچار و هیدروچار حاصل از باگاس نیشکر بر عملکرد محصول و بهره­وری آب و آبشویی نیتروژن در کشت ذرت تحت دو سطح آبیاری کامل و کم­آبیاری (به­اندازه 30 درصد) و دو سطح کوددهی 200 و 160 کیلوگرم در هکتار نیتروژن برای هر کدام از منابع اوره، بیوچار و هیدروچار بررسی شد. افزودن بیوچار و هیدروچار به خاک موجب افزایش عملکرد محصول، و بهره­وری آب و کاهش میزان زه­آب خروجی و آبشویی نیتروژن از خاک شد. بیوچار در مقایسه با هیدروچار به­دلیل تخلخل بالا و سطح ویژه بیشتر نقش مؤثرتری بر هریک از پارامترهای فوق داشت. با کاربرد بیوچار و هیدروچار در شرایط مطلوب رطوبتی در مقایسه با کاربرد اوره میزان زه­آب خروجی به­ترتیب 2/9 و 1/3 درصد کاهش داشت و میزان کاهش آبشویی نیتروژن نیز به­ترتیب برابر 2/6 و 4/3 درصد بود. بنابراین استفاده از بیوچار و هیدروچار می­تواند به­عنوان یک راهکار مؤثر برای کاهش اثرات منفی کشاورزی مطرح باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the Effect of Biochar and Hydrochar (Sugar Cane Bagasse) on Yield, Water Productivity and Nitrogen Leaching in Maize Cultivation

نویسندگان [English]

  • maryam kazemizadeh 1
  • abdali naseri 2
  • abdorahim hooshmand 3
  • mona golabi 4
  • Moosa Meskarbashee 5
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Professor of Irrigation and Drainage, Faculty of Water Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Faculty of Water Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Iran
4 Assistant Professor of Irrigation and Drainage Department, Faculty of Water Sciences, Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz, Iran
5 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University, Ahwaz
چکیده [English]

In the modern world, it is necessary to have a sustainable agricultural system in which natural resources are utilized and at the same time does make any harmful to the environment. Nitrogen leaching is one of the most important problems in intensive farming for high crop production. Application of organic matter lead to reduce chemical inputs and achieve sustainable agricultural goals. Application of modified materials such as biochar and hydrochar can play an important role in creating optimal conditions for growth, increasing plant yield and reducing water consumption, as well as reducing nitrate leaching. In the present study, the effect of biochar and hydrochar, derived from sugar cane bagasse, on crop yield, water productivity and nitrogen leaching in maize cultivation under two irrigation levels of full and dificit (up to 30%) and two fertilization levels of 200 and 160 kg/ha of nitrogen for each sources of urea, biochar and hydrochar were investigated. Adding biochar and hydrochar to the soil increased the yield and water productivity and reduced drainage outflow and nitrogen leaching. In contrast to hydrochar,  biochar has a more effective role for the above mentioned parameters due to its high porosity and specific surface area. In comparison with urea application, using biochar and hydrochar at the optimum moisture conditions reduced drainage outflow 9.2 and 3.1% and nitrogen leaching 2.6 and 3.4%, respectively. Therefore, the use of biochar and hydrochar could be considered as an effective solution to reduce the negative effects of agriculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biochar
  • Hydrochar
  • Nitrogen leaching
  • water use productivity
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