بررسی آلودگی دو سبزی ترب و جعفری به باکتری‌های مقاوم به آنتی‌بیوتیک- مطالعه موردی استان گیلان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

2 گروه علوم خاک، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه خاکشناسى، دانشکده کشاورزى، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت

چکیده

کاربرد کود دامی در سبزی­کاری­ها و آبیاری آن­ها با فاضلاب می­تواند مایه رسیدن آنتی­بیوتیک­ها و باکتری­های پایدار در برابر آن­ها به خاک شود که در پی آن سبزی­های خوراکی به آن­ها آلوده می­شوند. هدف این پژوهش بررسی باکتری­های پایدار در برابر آنتی­بیوتیک در دو سبزی ترب و جعفری و خاک زیر کشت آن­ها بود. سه کشت­زار سبزی­کاری در شهرهای پیربازار، چابکسر و فومن استان گیلان گزینش شدند. از سبزی­ها و خاک در سه تکرار نمونه­برداری شد. شمار باکتری­های هتروتروف و کلی­فرم آن­ها پس از ساخت سری رقت، به­ترتیب در محیط­های کشت NA و EMB که دارای µg/mL 100 از هر یک از آنتی­بیوتیک­های تری­متوپریم، جنتاماسین، سفالکسین و سیپروفلوکساسین بود، شمارش گردید. شناسه پایداری باکتری­ها به هر آنتی­بیوتیک، از تقسیم شمار کلونی‌ها در پتری دارای آن آنتی‌بیوتیک بر شمار کلونی‌ها در پتری گواه (بدون آن) برآورد شد. داده­ها در قالب طرح کرت­های دوبار خرد شده آنالیز شدند. تیمارها شامل جایگاه نمونه­برداری (در سه سطح) به عنوان کرت اصلی، گونه سبزی (در دو سطح) به عنوان کرت فرعی و گونه آنتی­بیوتیک (در 4 سطح) کرت فرعی-فرعی بودند. پیامد گونه آنتی­بیوتیک بر شناسه پایداری آنتی­بیوتیکی باکتری­های سبزی­ها و خاک معنی­دار بود (05/0>p) اما پیامد جایگاه نمونه­برداری و گونه کشت سبزی (ترب و جعفری) به ترتیب تنها بر شناسه پایداری آنتی­بیوتیکی باکتری­های هتروتروف و کلی­فرم سبزی­ها معنی­دار شدند (01/0>p). در جایگاه چابکسر 29 درصد باکتری­های هتروتروف سبزی­ها و 42 درصد کلی­فرم­های خاک به جنتامایسین پایدار بودند. بالاترین اندازه شناسه پایداری آنتی­بیوتیکی کلی­فرم­ها (38 درصد) در سبزی ترب و در برابر جنتامایسین به دست آمد. روی­هم­رفته باکتری­های قابل­کشت سبزی­ها در جایگاه چابکسر دارای شناسه پایداری به آنتی­بیوتیک بالاتری بودند و کاربرد تازه­خوری سبزی­های کشت شده در این جایگاه پیشنهاد نمی­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of Radish and Parsley Vegetables Contamination to Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria - A Case Study, Guilan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Bagher Farhangi 1
  • Sajjad Abdollahzadeh 2
  • Mahmoud Shabanpour 3
  • Nasrin Ghirbanzadeh 2
1 Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Guilan University, Rasht, P.O. Box 41635-1314, Iran.
2 Soil Science Department, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
3 Soil Science Department, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Manure application and irrigation practice with wastewaters in olericulture may introduce antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria to soil which may contaminate edible vegatables. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic resistant bacteria isolated from radish (Raphanus sativu) and parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) and their cultivated soils. Three vegetable farms were selected in Pirbazar, Chaboksar and Fouman areas in Guilan province. Samples were taken from vegetables and soils at three replications. After making serial dilution, their heterotrophic and coliform bacteria number were determined on NA and EMB agar media respectively, containing 100 µg/mL antibiotic. Four antibiotics including cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and trimethoprim were tested. Antibiotic resistant index (ARI) was calculated by dividing bacteria colony numbers on each antibiotic contained medium to control (medium without antibiotic). Data were analyzed as split-split plot design with three locations as main plot sector, two olericulture fields as sub-plot and four antibiotics as sub-sub plot factor. The effect of antibiotic was significant on the vegetable and soil bacteria ARI (p<0.05). But the effect of sampling area and farm (radish and parsley farms) were significant only on the heterotrophic and coliform bacteria ARI, respectively (p <0.01). In Chaboksar area, 29% of vegetable's heterotrophic bacteria and 42% of soil coliforms were resistant to gentamicin. The highest coliform ARI (38%) was obtained in radish and was to gentamicin. Overall, culturable bacteria from vegetables of Chaboksar area had higher antibiotic resistance index and eating fresh vegetables cultivated in this area is not recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antibiotic Rsistant Index
  • Chaboksar
  • coliforms
  • gentamicin
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