بخش‌بندی شیمیایی و ارزیابی خطر زیست‌محیطی سرب در پسماندهای معدن سرب-روی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

2 استاد، گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران

چکیده

بررسی مقدار آبشویی عناصر از منابع آلوده کننده محیط­زیست نظیر پسماندها، جهت تعیین سطح خطر این مواد و پایدار کردن کیفیت پسماندهای معدن سرب-روی زنجان اجرا شد. بدین منظور دو نمونه مرکب (0-20 سانتیمتری) از هر دو نوع پسماندهای این معدن برداشت شد و رفتار آبشویی وابسته به پی­اچ، زمان، اندازه ذرات و نسبت مایع به جامد با استفاده از آزمایش آبشویی بسته مشخص گردید. برای تعیین ترکیب عنصری پسماندها از دستگاه فلوئورسانس اشعه ایکس (XRF)، کانی­شناسی پسماندها از دستگاه پراش اشعه ایکس (XRD)، مورفولوژی ترکیبات از میکروسکوپ الکترونی روبشی (SEM) و بررسی سطح خطر پسماندها از پروتکل­های آبشویی؛ روش شستشوی مزرعهFLT) )، روش آبشویی باران مصنوعی SPLP))، روش استخراج ویژه سمیت TCLP)) و روش عصاره­گیری شیرابه  (LEP)و همچنین جهت مشخص کردن چگونگی توزیع سرب در بین بخش­های مختلف پسماندها از روش عصاره­گیری متوالی استفاده شد. غلظت محیط­زیست امری بسیار ضروری است. این تحقیق با هدف مشخص کردن غلظت، سطح خطر و رفتار آبشویی سرب از عنصر سرب در تمامی عصاره­ها با دستگاه ICP-OES اندازه­گیری گردید. نتایج نشان داد که زمان، اندازه ذرات، پی­اچ و نسبت مایع به جامد تأثیر بسیار بالایی بر غلظت آبشویی سرب از پسماندها داشته و بیشینه­ی غلظت سرب آبشویی شده از پسماندها در دامنه­ی متفاوتی از اندازه ذرات اتفاق افتاد. بیشترین مقدار سرب در بین پسماندهای مورد مطالعه به ترتیب در بخش باقیمانده، کربناتی، تبادلی، آلی، اکسیدهای آهن و منگنز و محلول مشاهده شد. نتایج پروتکل­های آبشویی نیز اثبات کرد که هر دو نوع پسماند دارای اثرات باقی مانده زیادی بر محیط­زیست بوده و جزء بقایای زاید خطرناک محسوب می­شوند. بنابراین باید جهت انباشت ایمن این مواد در محیط­زیست و جلوگیری از آبشویی سرب تدابیر خاصی اندیشیده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Chemical Fractionation and Environmental Risk Assessment of Lead in Lead-Zinc Mine Tailings

نویسندگان [English]

  • ahmad akhavan 1
  • Ahmad Golchin 2
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Soil Science, College of Agriculture, Zanjan University, Zanjan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Investigating the leaching amount of trace elements from environmental pollutants such as tailings is very crucial for determining the risk of these materials and sustaining environmental quality. This research was carried out to determine the concentration, risk level and leaching behavior of lead from Zn-Pb mine tailing of Zanjan. For this purpose, two composite samples (0-20 cm) were taken from both types of tailings from the Zn-Pb mine and the pH, time, particle size and liquid to solid ratio was determined using a batch leaching test. Determination of elemental composition and mineralogical characterization of mine tailings were performed using x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analytical techniques respectively. The morphology of tailing particles was determined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). For evaluation of tailings risk level, leaching protocols such as Field Leaching Test (FLT), Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure (SPLP), Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Leaching Extraction Procedure (LEP) were used. Also, for identification of lead distribution among different fractions of tailings, the sequential extraction method was applied. The concentration of lead in all extracts was measured by ICP-OES. The results showed that the time, particle size, pH and the liquid to solid ratio are more effective on the concentration of lead leaching from tailings and the maximum concentration of lead discharged from the tailings occurred in a different range of particle size. The maximum amounts of lead in the studied tailings were respectively observed in residual, carbonaceous, exchangeable, organic, iron and manganese oxides and solution parts. The results of the leaching protocols also made it clear that both types of waste have great environmental effects and are considered to be hazardous waste residues. Therefore, special measures should be taken to safely store these substances in the environment and prevent lead leaching.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pollution
  • risk level
  • environment
  • leaching behavior

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